HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING
The present research is performed in the framework of energy and resources conservation measures promotion in civil engineering. It introduces the perspectives of using thermal isolation in outer building envelopes and in air ventilation and conditioning systems insulation. The paper analyses the use of thermal screen isolation in building envelopes and air ventilation systems and proves that at the moment there is no methodology able to calculate these constructions in the existing engineering practice. The authors conducted a physical experiment to get reliable data on thermal screen isolation properties taking expanded polyethylene as a sample material. The results of the experiment as well as the obtained thermal conduction coefficient are presented in the paper. On the basis of the numerical data the authors introduce a verified methodology of calculation of thermal properties for building envelopes with screen insulation.
WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES
Water supply system in the urban type sett lement Volzhsky of Samara Region has typical structures: water intakes from wells, water treatment plants, a pumping station of the second elevation with clean water reservoirs, elevated tanks and water supply network. Water supply system plays a signifi cant role in providing consumers with water. Water supply pipelines in the urban type sett lement Volzhsky have considerable deterioration, some emergency pipelines have been replaced with new ones, but with a smaller diameter. Today, the sett lement water system proves equal to its tasks, but if we take into account the new trends in water consumption and putt ing new facilities in operation it will be clear that this system requires substantial modernization.
The paper deals with the study of aerodynamic
resistance in a channel with dumbbell-shaped dimples on the surface and with smooth walls. It has been found that the hydraulic resistance of a channel with dumbbell-shaped dimples is higher than of a smooth one. The surface of the channel of the proposed design is also higher. It can be used for the intensification of heat transmission in recuperative heat exchangers of ventilation systems. The numerical study of the flow in a rectangular channel with one-sided arrangement of dimples of proposed geometry has been carried out. It has been determined that the use of such dimples at small flow rates near the inlet (1-0.5 m/s) will increase the rate of gas flow near the surface with dimples in comparison with a smooth wall to 20 %. When the flow rate near the inlet is 16.5 m/s, the areas with lower rates appear near the dimples.
The technique of determining the basic parameters of the new water-lifting devices used in the composition of the pumped storage power plant of small capacity. Show the results of calculations by this technique for a pumped storage power plant of 10 kW. The results of calculations of the jet device and air-lift installation designed to work in PSP, showed the suitability of the proposed methodology that can be used in the design of hydropower facilities operating with a water-lifting devices using the energy of interaction between water and compressed air.
The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness of triggering a dirt insert of a reserve water outlet. For this purpose, conventional methods of hydraulic calculations. The article presents a calculation scheme of impact of surface and seepage flow onto a dirt box of a reserve water outlet. The paper also describes the mechanism of erosion of the soil paste under the influence of surface and seepage flow. The article presents the empirical formula for determination of flow coefficient on the basis of experimental studies. Examine a practical example of calculating a surface blur, not washing away and critical flow velocities. We have also identified the gradients of contact erosion for soil. The analysis of the results obtained on the basis of hydraulic calculations.
HYDRAULICS AND ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY
Speeds of free emersion of bubbles (the viscous mode of emersion) are investigated, at emersion of bubbles as quasifirm sphere under Stokes’s law. Emersion speeds at deformations of bubbles from spherical to griboobrazny are considered; at the square law of resistance of emersion of large bubbles, at the slow expiration of gas in the landlocked volume of liquid from an opening. Influence of geometry of channels on the speed of emersion of bubbles is analyzed. For processing of experimental data semi-empirical methods of the theory of similarity are used.
ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION AND URBAN ECONOMICS
The paper dwells upon various designs of roads on approaches to a mountain pass with the use of «loops» and serpentines. When designing serpentines it has been offered to calculate the magnitude of the transition curve on the base curve taking into consideration the optimum safety speed, and on the reversed curve – the speed provided by the basic curve rather than its radius. This allows to adjust a road layout to the relief form at the most, causing minimum possible damage to the environment. It has been recommended to lay a road on the approaches to a mountain pass focusing not on the limiting for the given road category longitudinal gradient, but on the «ruling» one, which is smaller than the limiting by the value of its decreasing on curvatures of small radii. The value of decreasing the limiting longitudinal gradient for roads located in the mountain massif of Central Asia, taking into account the position of the ridge in the mountain massif and slope exposure has been determined. The use of «loops» and serpentines for development of roads on a mountain slope has been calculated. Their comparison has been made. In many respects, the loop turned out to be more preferable than serpentines.
There are numerous methods of development of land-fills: recreational, forestry-based, landscape and others. However, it is difficult to create forest plantations and park belts on the territories of landfills because of the specific ecological character of landfills. The construction and economic trend of landfills development is an alternative to popular methods. This paper introduces some fundamental principles proving the possibility of construction and economic development of landfill territories. It also presents groups of measures necessary for complex assessment of the bulk of solid municipal waste and their condition.
The technology of intensive biothermal composting of oil-sludge waste products developed by employees of the Samara State Technical University is an effective method of recycling of the large-capacity waste products formed during oil refining. Furthermore, application of sludge waste products of auxiliary branches of the oil complex as cellulating and inoculating additives provides depreciation of sludge processing. The article describes the features of building and exploitation complexes biodestruction of oil waste in conditions of existing plants. Technological schemes and technical and economic indicators of the complex are designed in the environment an oil refinery.
THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
The main purpose of this article is making a definition of irregular ensemble’ compositional and morphological features, as a specific architectural and town-planning phenomenon. Irregular architectural ensembles, unlike regular ones, are capable of more flexible reaction on the dynamics of living conditions. An research on ensembles of this type can be useful for architectural design and urban planning. This study of the morphology of irregular architectural ensemble represents the phenomenon of “group form” – defined as low-ordered, incomplete association of volumes and spaces. “Group form” is opposed to the regular architectural ensemble as a compositional form. The phenomenon of irregular ensemble is treated as an intermediate between the two oppositions, and is defined in the article as compositional group form.
The paper considers foreign experience of landscape design and reconstruction of Pocket parks and gives examples of existing urban public gardens of Samara and their comprehensive analysis, introduces principles of reconstruction. Particular attention is paid to style and image peculiarities of small urban community garden, depending on their size, functional use and location in the structure of the city.
The article discusses the penetration of Europeans into the territory of China and the impact of their settlement on the development of traditional culture of the border areas in the period of XVI–XX centuries, the Result of a synthesis of Western and Eastern architecture was a series of architectural styles, formed independently in different regions of the country. In the Northern provinces developed Chinese Baroque, in Central – shikumen, in South – qilou, diaolou, weilou.
The paper deals with environment crisis and its characteristics as the basis for introducing the author’s conception of compositional method of design. The author defines environment as a complex system of human coexistence and stresses the importance of an architect’s personal skills in the global system of objective and subjective factors as the reasons for destructive environment origin. The main task of the compositional method does not involve just stressing particular outstanding architectural fates and creations. It lies in architectural proficiency maintaining and in interrelating it with general architectural ideas of worthiness and beauty.
The author makes an attempt to thinking in terms of architectural science challenges of globalization. Globalization is seen by the author, not only as dissemination of the stereotypical image of urban forms, but also terrestrial civilization; the loss of diversity in urban areas, the unification of the urban environment. The article presents several levels of study of the problem: statement; analysis and evaluation process with deducing its laws; reflection in order to overcome the negative factors, and process optimization. The author supports the idea of regional identity as a condition for the existence of an original architecture in a globalizing world. The article presents the results of the analysis, systematization and generalization of theoretical research in the field of architecture and construction, devoted to the problems of globalization as a factor of city planning. The semantic boundaries of the “problem field” of modern urbanization have been defined according to the growth of globalization tendencies in urban planning development. The direction of the optimization of urban technologies has been denoted corresponding different paradigms of city-formation.
ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY
The article investigates contemporary approaches to the architectural design of waste management plants. The authors analyze waste management current state in Russia and abroad. Problems of formation of the infrastructure and prospects of development of the architectural typology of waste management facilities are also considered. The paper classifies innovative architectural trends of increasing environmental and social value of waste transfer stations, waste recycling plants and incineration plants and provides illustrative examples.
In this article the author regards the possibilities of formation and development of business centers in Samara and in a suburban area, the potential of growth of their number, the main indicators, pluses of a country arrangement of business centers in structure of the existing airport, in a forest zone and variant of strategic development of business function in possible structure of agglomeration «Big Samara». In addition, the author describes a potential of the selected area in preparation for the World Cup in 2018, the opportunities and the realization strategies of the location of the business function near the future stadium, its impact on the transport frame in the given area, its role in the urban fabric. The author describes three possible scenarios – «Business Airport», «Business-highway» and «Business-recreation» and concludes about their possible implementation in the structure of the urban environment and the subsequent development of urban transport.
The article explores the evolution of one of compositional types of urban planning – sporadic building (sporadic town-planning). The author draws attention to the ideological-theoretical sources of its occurrence. This article discusses examples of open-plan in foreign and domestic practice of urban planning, including the Soviet period in the former Kuibyshev (Samara). The peculiarities of the sporadic building development are revealed in the present urban-planning practice of Samara. The author analyzes the objective obstacles in the implementation of open-planning on a present time-base. The paper concludes about a possible revival of the open-plan after a long crisis in terms of development of urban Samara`s areas with challenging terrain.
The article shows a possibility of using contextual surroundings of an architectural object as a source of its visual and conceptual distinction. This approach is adopter to hotels and hostels, objects of hospitality industry. The author shows how the need for unique character of these objects can be satisfied if various external conditions are taken into account. Hotels and hostels situated in different cultural, geographical and historical contexts are chosen for analysis. The paper introduces project methods used for these objects analysis and sums up the prior experience of design. The author makes a conclusion that surrounding context is used as a widely spread and actual means while designing unique character of objects of hospitality industry.
URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS
The article focuses on the formation of Saratov planning pattern while applying the method of component analysis of the changes in the city planning pattern and outlining the interdependence of these changes in the process of investigating the genesis of the planning pattern. The paper shows different stages of the quantitative growth of the city and qualitative changes in its planning organization. Quantitative growth of the road network in Saratov and its qualitative changes over the time are investigated. The stages of both nodal and linear urban centers formation are marked. Processes of intensive and extensive development of these centers are described. Quantitative growth rates for all components of Saratov planning pattern are determined. These figures are summarized in tables. In conclusion a graphical sheme of the genesis of Saratov planning pattern is put forward