Edition 3

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Defining fire and technical characteristics of a steel beam with corrugated web and its complex lining

Ilyin N. A. Panfilov, D. A., Eldarov E. V., Lukin A. O. 4-9 p.

This new technical solution introduced in the paper is related to the area of fire safety and involves the method of determining required indicators of constructional fire-proof characteristics of a steel beam with corrugated web which in itself is a composite welded I-beam with large sheet and plate lining. The paper also delivers results of patent research on the problem of steel constructions fire protection and describes other similar technical solutions. The authors analyze shortcomings of these solutions and their technical level, identify tasks and objectives of their new technical solution and demonstrate technical effects of the new technology (such as devices, inventions, utility models). Further in the paper activities and measures to achieve the proper technological effect are outlined and application peculiarities of fire and technical characteristics of the integrated steel lining are indicated. The researchers also stress specifics of the I-beam components performance evaluation and put forward new analytical equations to calculate fire resistance characteristics of steel elements as well as a new methodology for determining geometric and heat-technical characteristics of complex fire-proof lining. There is also an example of calculations according the developed algorithm given in the paper.

Enhancing compressed rods of steel coating farms and their welding
DEFORMATIONS

Rodionov I. K. 10-13 p.

The paper provides a calculation methodology for weld deflections appearing when the method of cross-sections increase of compressed rods of steel coating farms is applied. The methodology is based on the method of determining welding deformations known as the “dummy temperatures” method. The following distinctive features of reinforcement are taken into account: pressure tension from loading in reinforced elements, surfacing of several longitudinal welds, complexity and variety of cross-sections.

Analytical description of the inclined crack trajectory by the method of nonlinear deformation model

Suvorov A. A., Filatov V. B. 14-18 p

The article proposes an analytical solution to determine the trajectory of inclined crack with the use of nonlinear deformation model in the area of the transverse bending of a reinforced concrete beam. The use of nonlinear deformation model for the analysis of stress-strain state of the beam in the zone of the transverse bending allows to determine the coordinates of the inclined crack trajectory, the position of its vertex, and the angle of inclination to the longitudinal axis of the beam. It is then possible to move from the empirical dependences for calculating the strength of the inclined sections to precise analytical techniques. The proposed algorithms calculate and analyze the stress-strain state of reinforced concrete beams create preconditions for the implementation of the physical model of a power resistance of reinforced concrete elements under transverse bending.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING

Optimizing the choice of ventilating air cleaning equipment in systems of local exhaust ventilation

Pouring S. M., Butusov D. N., Titov G. I. 19-23 p

Functioning of industrial buildings is impossible without correctly organized ventilation system. Its work both regulates heat moist mode and the required indoor air purity that is cleaned with the help of air cleaning equipment. To make decision to construct the required air cleaning equipment at the enterprise it is worthwhile to give additional parameters and to solve a problem of multicriteria optimization to get the best results. The choice of the best variant is supposed to be carried out using Harrington’s desirability function. The conducted multicriteria analysis allowed to reveal optimum characteristics of air cleaning equipment, based on the required purification air degree, the geometrical sizes of the equipment and aerodynamic resistance while introducing any particular device.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MECANICS

Dynamic calculation of prismatic systems taking into account internal friction

Vronskaya E. S. 24-27 p

The paper shows a possibility of including a frequency-independent viscoelastic design resistance in calculation models representing composite structures with distributed parameters. Differential equations of the system motion include parameters of complex rigidity. The research puts forward a solution which helps solve stationary and non-stationary dynamic problems taking internal friction into account. This solution is found by using the calculation algorithm for prismatic shells involving the use of topological matrices. In the process of separation of variables, this approach yields a differential equation of linear oscillator motion with frequency-independent viscoelastic resistance.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

Applicability of water ζ
– potential as its pollution density characteristics

Kichigin V. I., Skorokhodov S. N.28-34 p

The paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of existing methods for determining water quality. It proposes to use electro-kinetic capacity as a key indicator together with cluster analysis of obtained results. It is shown, that according to such indicators as pH, turbidity, alkalinity, general rigidity, content of ion Ca 2+, Mg 2+, the quality of drinking water in Samara is stable and consistent with existing standards. The research reveals some zeta-potential (ZP) dependence on water pollution density. It was shown that the link between zeta-potential and various kinds of contamination in drinking water is underexplored and requires further detailed study.

Surface sources of centralized drinking water supply: their purification from biocontamination and purifiaction effeciency deermination (with the city of Simferopol taken as an example

Strelkov A. K., Kotovskaya E. E., Warm S. Yu. 35-45 p

The paper demonstrates statistical analysis results of biocontamination of Simferopol water reservoirs of centralized drinking water supply sources. The biocontamination results were obtained by permanganate oxidizability factor. The analysis revealed a consistent pattern of biocontamination distribution and its analytical description for four sources of centralized water supply. The paper also introduces models of this factor distribution for water purified in water-purification plants of the city of Simferopol (in clean-water reservoirs). The effectiveness of two-step water purification scheme (horizontalstrainer chamber – high-rate trickling filter) from biocontamination is calculated. The research demonstrates a probability of exceeding permanganate oxidizability normative values for drinking water according to WHO and EU standards and according to drinking water requirements for this indicator in the Russian Federation. The required degree of permanganate oxidizability disposal at water treatment plants which will make the quality of drinking water meet WHO and EU standards is also defined.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Strength and durability of small piece products made from fibre reinforced concrete

Baranov A. S. 46-49 p

This research studies effects of technology factors on strength and durability of fibre reinforced concrete. It theoretically proves the influence of elastic aftereffect deformation values on fibre reinforced concrete strength and durability. The paper proves that high-modulus fiber reinforcement leads to lowering the effects of the influence of elastic aftereffect deformation on fibre reinforced concrete strength and durability. It also demonstrates that basalt fibre and superplasticizing admixture C-3 integrated use in fibre reinforced concrete reduces the deformation value of elastic aftereffect to 25% and makes it possible to obtain a material with F I 400 and above frost resistance properties.

Gabion and reinforced ground structures

Sheina T. V., Avdeeva E. A. 50-56 p

In world practice, gabion structures are used more than 100 years. The on-currently a variety of gabion containers are widely used for a wide-range of applications of road construction. Years of experience shows that the utilization of the gabion structures is one of the highly effective and versatile way not only to strengthen the slopes, slopes of embankments and depressions, but also strengthening, stabilization and protection of exploited subgrade and devices podmostovyh cones, bridge supports, regulatory dams, drainage facilities.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

Texile synthenic sheets and their impact on the load bearing capacity of concrete-filled texile floor-mats

Mikhasek A. A., Rodionov M. V., Litvinova M. G. 57-62 p

The calculation of the strength of concrete slabs load bearing capacity does not take into account synthetic sheets impact while calculating concrete-filled textile floor-mats. Further studies are proposed to assess the impact of sheets in laboratory environments. The authors base their study on the properties of concrete-filled textile floor-mats as flexible beams and on synthetic sheets impact on strength indicators. The paper presents a laboratory study results obtained under different conditions of textile synthetic sheets impact on concrete-filled textile floor-mats load bearing capacity. It provides a function to determine a mat thickness from the condition of its strength.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION AND URBAN ECONOMICS

Metropolis environmental problems: methods of solution

Gvozdovsky V. I., Knyazeva M. N., Sizova A. I.63-67 p

The paper examines challenging environmental issues of Russian landscape territories, related to anthropogenic impacts on human’s natural habitat and dangerous Earth biosphere pollution by toxic chemical substances. The research provides a structural classification of city types by population and size of their territory. The authors give recommendations for nature protection (environmental) measures necessary for a large city (being a standard of comfortable human habitat) against degradation and destruction in order to preserve environmental security and sound functioning of an urban habitat complex msystem of an intelligent person.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Architectural-spatial solution for Chernovsk highway building development of Kuibyshev city

Vostrikov V. N.68-71 p

This paper considers issues of residential area (which is next to Chernovsk Highway) construction (Yuriy Gagarin str.) which took place in the1960s according to Kuibyshev-city general lay-out. The features of this design decision have been described in the context of general trends in urban planning and architecture and their development. The paper focuses on functional processes in the living environment and objective laws of their management, on user-friendly transport and pedestrian accessibility, and on the creation of an enabling and aesthetically sound environment. It defines a type of building development and features of architectural and planning solutions of using typical residential buildings and public facilities, as well as specifics of composite construction providing visual communications.

Composite method: mega-object model updating? its value and procedures

Malakhov S. A. 72-79 p

The paper discusses the concept of mega-object, which is a review of the relationship between the object and the environment from the perspective of enhancing specific individual actions of the designer. The central aspect of this conception is an individually executed model of an urban landscape fragment, which is one of the key subsystems of the environment. The first thing that this model does is to achieve the plastic integrity of the form of an environment fragment. As a result, from the perspective of this concept, some single object cannot be fully effective without being an integral part of this whole. All modeling procedures developed in the composite method introduced by the author are subordinated to the idea of assembling or cutting the body of mega-object. The composite method here serves as an organic link to art, first of all, to plastic art. The article emphasizes the importance of Frank Lloyd Wright’s activities as the founder of an organic architecture, gives a classification of mega-objects and describes how they are dependent on the so-called “Size scale” of the composite method design.

Modern approaches to the delimitations of urban agglomerations

Monastirskaya M. E., Peslyak O. A. 80-86 p

The approaches to delimitation of urban agglomerations formed by European science and practice are analyzed and summarized in the present work. The essential definitional analysis of the concepts of «urban agglomeration», «urban area», «metropolitan area», «urban region», «metropolitan region» is conducted. The main algorithms of delimitation of urban agglomerations used in the fields of urbanology, management, statistics, economic geography are classified. The current trends in the development and improvement of methods of delimitation of agglomerations proposed by European researchers are identified.

Architectural town-planning development of cossack fortress Verkhneyaitskaya

Ponomarenko E. V. 87-94 p

The peculiarities of the location of the settlements of Cossacks. The work is devoted to the analysis of the occurrence and development of Cossack fortress Verkhneyaitskaya and settlements Verkhneuralsk. Explores the formation of architectural Wednesday. Examines the mutual influence of cultures and traditions in the formation of architectural Wednesday. On the basis of the XIXth century eyewitnesses’ recollections, archive investigations and analysis of general settlements planning schemes, the researcher discovers the peculiarities of planning and housing systems.

Strategies for anonymous and professional languages interaction in design practice

Repina E. A., Romanova D. N. 95-101 p

The paper demonstrates values of an anonymous language and its potential for design practice. It attracts attention to the problem of unprofessional architecture which is underestimated in professional practice. The thing is that squatter development is usually seen as a product of poor architecture and is widely destroyed and replaced by typical unified objects. The question of the legitimacy of such project invasion is raised in the paper. It puts forward a methodology for working with anonymous languages and demonstrates how to do taking the so-called “Red houses” (districts within Cheremshanskaya – Nagarnaya – Voronezhskaya – Kalinin streets and Rotorniy alley) as an example. The paper covers issues which were faced during the work. It takes three projects – that is “Municipal Design”, “Public design” and “Custom design” – as examples and explores strategies of the design “intervention” of a professional architect and ways of dialogue with the environment on the language level.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Passive use of geothermal energy in individual homes

Bannikova A. O., Kalinkina N. A.102-105 p

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of passive use of geothermal energy in the architectural and planning solutions environmentally friendly homes. The article describes issues related to the relevance of the use of geothermal energy in constructing. Earth sheltered eco house is seen as one of the vectors of sustainable architecture of individual housing construction. Presents the advantages and disadvantages of objects that were built on the underground construction and therefore passively using geothermal technology. We reviewed the classification of such buildings and their structure features associated primarily with the issues of heat saving and energy efficiency. The main methods of the study were synthesis of theoretical base and studying the experience of architects, associated with the construction technology of earth sheltered buildings.

Architectural-typological priorities for sustainable development of the urban environment

Vavilova T. Y., Cayasova D. S., Lukyanov, Y. A. 106-112 p

The research task of this paper was to identify the topical areas of improving the quality of urban environment and to generalize of approaches to ensuring its sustainable development. International and Russian trends in the formaition formation and the optimization of infrastructure of community facilities (rental housing, health care, education, culture and art, physical training, sport and tourism, social maintenance) and engineering-communal services of cities was are treated. The authors revealed certain regularities between demographic, economic and recreational capacity of territories and the consumer properties of the urban environment. Attention is focused on the issues of quantitative correspondence of the network of necessary infrastructure facilities and improvement of the quality of design solutions. Current trends that correspond to the tasks of reducing the anthropogenic impact of buildings on the environment are also shown.

Rental housing as a socio-architertural experiment

Potiyenko N. D. 113-116 p

The paper deals with modern trends in the design and construction of rental housing. It gives examples of social rental housing in Europe and the United States of America which are of architectural and aesthetic interest. Urban, architectural, planning, design and stylistic techniques for building and designing social rental housing abroad have been studied in the paper. Functional structure of rental housing influencing the level of comfort has been analyzed from the point of view of social and economic relations in society. The research demonstrates options for implementing energy and resource-saving technologies, equipment and materials in the construction of social rental housing as part of the concept of sustainable urban development. It comes to a conclusion that there is currently a change of foreign architectural practices from typical design to individual design, including social housing.

A synthesis of architectire and monumental decorative art in the architecture of sovient modernism with Toglyatti taken as an example

Solodilov M. V., Korobova E. S. 117-123 p

The article describes the background of the principle of architecture and monumental arts synthesis that emerged in the domestic version of modernism in 1960s. It mentions artists and architects who contributed to the modernist architecture enrichment with artistic and plastic tools. The influence of Moscow monumentalists who worked all over the USSR improving the image of young Soviet cities is stressed. With Toglyatti as an example, the paper demonstrates different ways how the principle of architecture and monumental arts synthesis might be applied and also discusses the principle of a single urban design plan that emerged in Soviet architecture. The authors describe construction objects built according to this principle, give glimpses of biographies of artists. The given details are based on the previous archive studies. They also provide possible reasons for the decline in monumental art and predict the emergence of modern forms of art that would interact with architecture. Objects, to which the principle of architecture and monumental arts synthesis might be applied, become a potential and an internal resource for tourist and cultural attraction of the city.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

Resource-saving technologies in architecture

Kotenko I. A., Mordvinova, V. M.124-128 p

he article is devoted to the review of the main directions of resource saving in architecture. Along with traditional methods of rational use of material resources in form-education, the authors consider the know-how of high-rise construction using the example of some well-known buildings in the world. Particular attention in the review is given to the prospective tendencies in the design of energy-efficient residential buildings, novelties in engineering systems of buildings that allow to economically expending energy and heat. In particular, the authors describe the technology of recuperation, which allows to return some of the heat to the needs of the building. A separate direction of resource conservation is the design and application of energy-efficient enclosing and window structures, as well as heat-insulating materials. The article contains illustrations of energy-efficient architecture and its structures.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, NETWORKS, AND GRIDS

Centralized heat supply system and techniques of planning its loads

Chicherin, S. V., Glukhov S. V. 129-136 p

The paper analyses heat-supply systems of four major Russian cities and heat-supply regulatory documents. The authors investigated company documents providing information on construction objects prospective connection and on unconnected consumers for each heating season. The information contained in the documents was summarized and made anonymous to preserve confidentiality of consumers. The researchers also studies data from the official site of the Municipal Service Department of Omsk Administration. The data showed housing stock structure and its coverage with centralized heating services. The following percentage rating for reasons causing the thermal load removal is detected: thus, 31 of 47 construction objects with a total load of 80.8% (of the total load removed during the period under review) were switched off the system because of “The resettlement program for citizens from the emergency housing stock” in 2016. Typical problems of a large settlement centralized heating system operation are also described in the paper. It is shown that there is a tendency towards a significant increase in the amount of annual heat consumption decline underway. This increase in decline may be 32-multiple in some regions, and it may go slow in the others. Making recommendations based on the results of the design calculation will clarify diameters of trunk and intra networks, which the authors see a task for the future. In general, this methodology should help to adjust industrial strategies for consumer needs.