Edition 1

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Stress-strain state of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete columns of circular cross-section

Mordovskoy S. S., Devlikamov R. I. 4-9 p

Theoretical studies of reinforced concrete eccentrically compressed columns of circular cross-section on strength indexes are analyzed. These studies rely on the use of a nonlinear deformation model that approximates the work of concrete to real experimental conditions. A comparative analysis of the results of calculating the strength of reinforced concrete columns of circular cross-section is carried out according to the methodology proposed in the current set of rules, is the author’s program for determining the stress-strain state of a reinforced concrete column of circular cross-section implemented in the MathCad software environment. The results of a numerical experiment are compared in the form of a finite-element model in the Lira-CAD program complex using a nonlinear deformation model. Calculations and schemes are given taking into account the possibility of conducting an experimental study.

Technological parameters of welding during the reinforcement of steel trusses covering industrial buildings

Rodionov I. K., Rodionov I. I. 10-15 p

The main provisions of rational reinforcement technologies are presented by the method of increasing the cross-section of compressed and stretched rods from pairs of rafter trusses covering industrial buildings. The justification of the technology is given from the position of the available thermal effect of welding in this case. Criteria are given for the safe conduct of welding operations at any level of load. Theoretically, the advantages of this technology over known technological schemes are substantiated. On a concrete example the issues of the present interrelation of technical, ecological and economic aspects are considered.

Analysis of existing methods of construction from monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete in winter conditions

Ryazanova G. N., Popova D. M. 16-23 p

The advantages of monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete in comparison with traditional technologies are considered. The evaluation of the structure of construction technology is given. The analysis of the main methods of winter concreting with the development of the structure of heating and non-heating methods is given. The main methods of maintaining concrete and reinforced concrete at negative ambient temperatures are described. An algorithm for estimating the methods of winter concreting for technical and economic indicators is developed: labor costs and electricity consumption. Prospects for the development taking into account the technical and economic effectiveness of the option of combining non-heating and heating methods for further investigation are outlined.

Analysis of constructive perfomance of standard modular buildings

Shirokov V. S., Solovyov A. V. 24-27 p

The design of modular buildings of transforming sub-stations is considered. On the base of the calculation of the main load-bearing elements the structural solution of the block modules is analyzed. The main problem is the use of modules of the same design in buildings with different layout schemes and equipment loads. The purpose of the work is to identify the most important general patterns of modular buildings from the engineering and construction point of view. It is determined that for various structural elements the tests from different combinations of loads and layout schemes are leading. The problem of horizontal rigidity of block-modules is considered. Special attention has been paid to the design of the node joints of columns with horizontal elements as the most important.

Technologies of protection of highways from rockfalls

Sheina T. V., Avdeeva E. A. 28-34 p

The technology of the device of certain anti-dump structures for the sections of mountain roads subject to collapses is considered. A comprehensive analysis of rockfall risk factors has been identified and justified in order to select the most effective protection system. The measures on passive protection (catching structures and devices, anti-galleries galleries, simple drapery systems) and active protection (restraining structures and drapery systems with additional reinforcement) have been analyzed. The materials used in advanced anti-dump systems are distinguished, they are characterized by increased strength, enhanced corrosion protection, relatively low weight, which makes it possible to use light technology.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING

Method for calculating heat pipes that divert heat from the heat-emitting surface

Lux, A. L., Matveev, A. G., Zelentsov D. V. 35-39 p

The results of complex studies of the parameters of the heat-conducting collectors, development of the methods for their calculation are presented. The main difficulty in this case is the calculation of the design and parameters in the region of the contact zone between the heat pipe and the heat-generating surface. It is shown that the calculation methods used for convective collectors can not be applied to collectors with heat pipes in which the elements do not depend on each other. It is established that semiempirical models provide an opportunity to study the specifics of the processes taking place in the reservoir, the degree of their influence on its efficiency. The simplified calculation technique proposed in this article allows us to make the required estimates and calculations at the engineering level.

Air -radiant heating on the basis of a two-flow heat generator with infrared emitters

Panchenko V. V. 40-43 p

A scheme of a radiant heating regenerative system on the basis of a two-flow heat generator, and system and form of heat-radiating air ducts is proposed. It is shown that the system of radiant heating is more efficient as compared to the conventional convection system. Traditionally, the convective scheme of heating is used wherein radiators installed near the floor are used. Water serves as the working fluid in the radiators. The proposed radiant heating regenerative system is based on the transfer of heat in the form of infrared electromagnetic radiation. An efficient two-flow heat generator with infrared emitters has been developed, which gives off heat only from the radiating surface of heat exchangers. This system allows you to reduce investment, operating costs and improve the efficiency of the heating system.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

Study of the possibility of using microwave radiation for the treatment of liquid municipal waste

Kichigin V. I., Zemlyanova M. V., Vyalkova E. I. 44-49 p

The article is devoted to the study of the influence of micro-wave electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMP) on the properties of sewage sludge. The possibility of using microwave radiation for their processing is shown. The results of experiments confirming the positive effect of the process under study on the degree and speed of compaction of a mixture of precipitation and activated sludge, improvement of their moisture yield, an increase in the yield of heavy metal impurities in decanted water, a decrease in the specific resistance of filtration and capillary suction of the sediment, precipitation. A hypothesis is proposed for the effect of UHF EMP on wastewater sludge.

Preparation of water for the operation of boiler and heaving networks in the districts of the city of Samara, cities and towns of the Samara region

Minkin S. A., Negoda L. L., Kurmaeva T. S. 50-53 p

The problem of water quality is considered for the operation of boiler and heating networks in the example of the districts of the city of Samara, as well as cities and towns of the Samara region. The results of the chemical analysis of natural waters in the areas of the city of Samara, cities and towns of the Samara region are presented. As the main quality indicators in the choice of water preparation methods, the total hardness, carbonate hardness, the dry residue of the initial water, the hydrogen index are considered. Based on water quality indicators, recommendations are given on the choice of water treatment methods in boiler rooms for boilers of various types and depending on their thermal capacity. Attention is focused on the correct choice of the softening method depending on the water quality indicators.

Sustainable operation of the sewage works in critical situations

Wilson E. V., Serpokrylov N. C., Dolzhenko L. A. 54-58 p

The causes of critical situations in sewage treatment plants for municipal water disposal are analyzed. A survey of local treatment facilities of the microdistrict in a critical failure situation was carried out and problems were identified, caused by the discharge of either under-treated or completely untreated sewage into the reservoir. To restore the functioning of treatment facilities an optimal technological regime has been developed, taking into account changes in air supply, introduction of biologics, addition of hydrogen peroxide and the use of LEDs in the aerobic part of structures.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION AND URBAN ECONOMICS

Ensuring environmental safety in the conditions of environmental pollution by cadmium

Zakirova M. N., Chuprina E. V. 59-62 p

Technological processes are considered and the industries that are the source of cadmium entering the environment are identified. The materials, raw materials and technologies promoting pollution of air with Cd-containing emissions are determined. The ways of getting cadmium into the human body are considered. The negative consequences of accumulation of heavy metal in the human body are estimated. The method of atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to study food products for the content of cadmium in them. Studies allow to regard cadmium as a super-toxicant of the environment due to its widespread prevalence and extreme danger. The measures of a technical and medico-prophylactic nature to limit the effects of cadmium on humans are proposed.

Integrated assessment of the condition of urbanized areas

Konstantinov I. S., Zvyagintseva A. V. 63-71 p

Based on the use of statistical information from various organizations, an assessment of the state of the urbanized territories has been performed on a set of indicative indicators. To this aim, a method of complex estimation based on the representation of states of objects through a combination of values of indicators and joint events of their simultaneous observation, as well as on the establishment of empirical distributions of such events was proposed. The application of the method allowed to propose calculated dependencies for the ranking of objects. Specific examples show that based on the proposed method, a comparative assessment of urban areas is possible. The obtained results can be used in the formation of goals and the development of measures to ensure a balanced development of urban infrastructure, as well as in the development of urban development programs and management decisions in the field of environmental safety of urban economy.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Principles and methods of architectural adaptation of historical complexes and buildings

Leschina K. S., Sysoeva E. A., Slastenin V. P. 72-77 p

The urgency of preservation and adaptive use of historical buildings and structures is considered. As a key idea, a position is formulated on the most important role of industrial enterprises in the history of the formation of the city of Samara, the importance of these buildings as valuable heritage objects and the need for their preservation and development. Foreign analogues are considered on the basis of which the principles and methods of architectural solutions of the adaptation of historic buildings and complexes for modern use are revealed. It is concluded that in the cities of Russia, including Samara, there are many objects that need to be preserved, restored and reused. The accumulated foreign experience can help in drawing up a theoretical and practical basis for preserving the heritage.

Elements of artifical environment

Orlova N. A. Orlov D. N. 78-84 p

The work is based on the concept based on the understanding that the human environment is not only a problem of architecture or urban planning, it is a comprehensive interdisciplinary array of knowledge about the set of factors that form the man – made environment and no fewer factors emanating from this environment. In this article, an attempt, is made to complete the hierarchical classification of heterogeneous processes and phenomena associated with the artificial environment. The kind of logic of classification, structure and allocation of links between heterogeneous phenomena and factors shows the specifics of the interaction of nature, human and technology as a special three-way symbiosis of mutual influence, consistency and mutual conditionality of these global phenomena. This trichotomy of the artificial environment in our opinion is a new approach to understanding the problem and the formation of methods of strategic planning and design.

Authentication of Novgorod school of ancient russian temple architecture

Cenpalov M. F., Zhuravlev M. Yu. 85-90 p

Taking into account the historical context the characteristic features of the Novgorod architectural school of Orthodox temple architecture of the 12th-15th centuries are explored. A comparative analysis of the most significant objects of this period is carried out. The process of formation of the Novgorod style is traced. The volume-spatial and architectural-artistic features of a number of buildings are listed and described. A conclusion is drawn about authentic elements and expressive methods characteristic of this direction.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Evolution of perception of the values of historical architecture in formats of time / forms / context

Artemyeva T. G., Balzannikova E. M. 91-95 p

The specifics of the evolution of perception of the value of historical architecture in the formats of time, form and context are revealed. The place and character of the history of architecture relative to the general history of mankind and the history of other types of society activity is determined. The substantiation of the value fields of historical architecture in time, form and context formats is provided with the identification of the specifics of their integrated assessment in order to determine the prospects for the existence of a historical architecture. The definition of the physical and metaphysical contextuality of the historical architecture is given taking into account its bifunctional essence. Typical predictive assessments of the prospects for the existence of historical architecture are given.

Defining typological structure of mixed-ese tall builings

Generalova E. M. 96-101 p

The article deals with an actual problem of finding techniques and methods to create a comfortable urban environment. The author emphasizes that in the existing conditions of intensive urban development greater attention should be given to spatial concentration based on and more compact distribution of population in urban space. It is stressed that including mixed-use facilities into urban realm results in a significant improvement of living environment qualitative characteristics. The author explores the world’s experience of designing tall mixed-use buildings and reveals modern trends in their construction.

Semantics of the house carving of Samara

Kotenko I. A., Kharitonova A. S. 102-108 p

The article tells about the semantics of carved ornaments of ancient wooden houses in the city of Samara and explores the ornamental features of the wooden and stone-wooden buildings of the city, built in the late 19th century. Relying on the studies of historians who studied the culture of Ancient Rus, the authors show that the semantics of the wooden carving of the city of Samara is closely related to the pagan beliefs of the ancient Slavs and the folk traditions of applied art and craft. The authors cite the classification of the main parts and elements of buildings decorated with house carvings, emphasizing the connection between the ornament and its location on the houses in accordance with the model of the pagan universe and the magical-spellcasting rites of the ancient pagans. The article analyzes the existing types of house carvings in the city, illustrates the construction of traditional ornamental composition, the geography of thematic influences and traditional crafts. At the same time, a conclusion is drawn about the high variety of compositions and the uniqueness of the Samara wooden carving of each old house.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

Forming the identity of public objects on the example of Samara

Kosenkova N. A. Serova A. A. 109-116 p

The purpose of the article is to identify the influence of the system of priority identifiers on the architecture of public objects in Samara in the historical stages, from the time of the foundation of the city (1586) to the present time. On the example of some heritage objects the difference between the architectural and historical environment and its uniqueness is shown. The conclusion is made that the preservation of the identity of the place is the most important principle of sustainable development of the architectural and historical environment, since the historical and cultural heritage must be transferred to the future. As a result, the image of the Samara residential development along the whole path of its development was determined, the types, styles, impacts of the external and internal ethnos, as well as the productive forces that are the basis for the development of the city in each historical period.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, NETWORKS, AND GRIDS

Simulation of one-sided saturation of magnetic systems of electric power systems power transformers

Vakhnina V. V., Kuvshinov A. A., Kuznetsov V. N., Shapovalov V. A. 117-123 p

A technique for modeling the magnetic fields of power transformers in the environment of the software product FEMM 4.2 is developed taking into account the design scheme and real geometric dimensions of the magnetic system and tank, quasi-permanent current components in high-voltage windings, and the experimental magnetization characteristics of electrical and structural steel. Modeling of magnetic fields of magnetic systems of rod and armored rod structures is carried out on the example of serial power transformers TRDN-63000/115 / 6.3 / 6.3 and TDTs-400000/242/20. The dependences of the mean values of induction in the central cross sections of the rods and side yokes on the quasi-constant currents are determined. It is shown that the saturation of the magnetic system of the rod structure begins with the outer rods at a multiplicity of quasi-constant current equal to 2.2 relative to the nominal phase current of the high-voltage winding. The saturation of the magnetic system of the armored rod structure begins with the lateral yokes at a multiplicity of the quasi-constant current equal to 2.63 with respect to the idle current rating.

Optimization of elecrotechnical power consuption of gas cooling system complex

Danilushkin A. I., Danilushkin I. A. 124-129 p

The problem of the optimal load distribution between electric drives of fans in a multi-section gas cooling unit is considered based on the minimum energy expenditure for cooling. The optimization problem is solved on the basis of the obtained analytical model for the gas temperature at the outlet of the cooling unit. The model takes into account the mutual influence of the operating modes of all fans of the installation. A technique for solving the problem of optimal load sharing between electric drives of fans for a linearized process model is developed using the procedure of integer programming. The optimization technique takes into account the individual characteristics of the devices.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

INDUSTRIAL THERMAL POWER ENGINEERING

On the theoretical study of the hydrodynamic characteristics of viscous incompressible fluid flow in gaps of variable height

Christen E. A. 130-134 p

The analysis of the operation of precision pairs is given in the presence of distortions and misalignments between the plunger and the cage. The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid during the pulsation of the pressure drop and the oscillation of the plunger by periodic arbitrary laws in annular gap gaps with a variable eccentricity along the channel length is considered. A plane channel filled with a viscous incompressible fluid with an angle of inclination of the upper wall to the lower one is considered. The upper wall performs arbitrary periodic motions in its plane, the pressure difference at the ends of the channel also varies according to an arbitrary periodic law, but with some other period. The problem is solved in the polar coordinate system. Since the boundary-value problem does not have an exact analytic derivation, an approximate analytic solution is found.

Calculation of the drainage system of leaving flue gases from the turbine through the cooling tower

Kudinov A. A., Demina Yu. E. 135-138 p

The article presents result of a research a system of the venting of exhaust gases of the recovery boiler the gas turbine plant through the natural draft cooling tower in the environment. The use of this scheme allows the flue gases to lower the temperature of the circulating water at the outlet of the cooling tower to provide a deeper vacuum in the condenser steam turbine combined cycle power plant with simultaneous reduction of capital to build chimneys. As a result of the application of this scheme, an increase in the absolute electric efficiency of turbines is achieved. As stated in Article method of calculating the removal of exhaust flue gas systems with a perforated distributor ring allows to determine the level of engineering design and volume requirements of these systems.