Edition 2

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Calculation of instant-rigid hinged-rog systems with missing links

Akhmedov Akramdzhon D. 4-8 p

The problem of determination of forces and displacements in a spatial hinged-rod system with missing (up to geometrically unchangeable) links under static loading is considered. Equilibrium equations and geometric relations are written in a matrix form. The calculated equations are not linear. To solve the equations we propose a general technique that is not related to assumptions about the structure of the system or the nature of the load based on the fact that the displacements obtained by solving a linear part of the equations can be substantially refined by interpreting the nonlinear terms as a load under the action of which the system can be regarded as linear.

Perfection of the form and technology of the reinforced concrete piles design for low-rise construction

Isaev Veniamin I., Maltsev Andrey V., Karpov Andrey A. 9-14 p

The results of a computational and analytical study of the carrying capacity of various variants of short piles used in low-rise construction are presented. The relevance of the topic of work is determined by the current situation in the field of individual housing construction. The most common pile foundations in this direction of construction are considered. Two alternative designs and technologies for piling are proposed. A comparative analysis of the bearing capacity of the piles proposed by the authors with the most common variants is made. The materials of the publication reflect the effectiveness of the proposed designs and suggest continuation of research in this direction.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

The intensification of the process of slude dewatering of urban sewage

Pogrebnyak Svetlana A., Kolova Alevtina F., Pazenko Tatyana Ya. 15-19 p

Urban wastewater sludge is highly humid, large and poorly dehydrated. Dehydration of sludge in natural conditions has a number of shortcomings: low efficiency, sludge areas require huge land areas, worsen the ecological situation, pollute groundwater, soil, etc. One way to eliminate the problem and improve the efficiency of sludge dewatering in urban wastewater is to switch to mechanical dehydration using flocculants. The work is devoted to the selection of the most effective flocculant and was carried out on the natural sediments of the right-bank treatment facilities in Krasnoyarsk and the sewage treatment plants in the settlement of Emelyanovo. The experiment showed that flocculants Praestol 851BC and Zetag 7485 at a dose of 3 kg / t dry matter of the precipitate have the greatest effectiveness.

Estimation of seasonal variability of water quality in a surface source of drinking water supply

Selezneva Alexandra V., Bespalova Ksenia V., Seleznev Vladimir A. стр 20-26

The results of water quality monitoring of the Saratov reservoir for the period 2000-2016 are presented. Observations were carried out monthly at a stationary station located in the lower tail of the Zhigulevskaya HPP. It is established that the quality of water in the source of water supply is characterized by significant seasonal variability. During the mass development of algae the organic contamination of the reservoir increases and the concentration of nutrients decreases. Excessive content of organic substances in the summer low water complicates the technological processes of water purification. It is concluded that phosphate is the limiting factor restraining the mass development of algae, the concentration of which in the peak of “flowering” of water is reduced to almost zero.

Intensification of purification of sewage water-generation manufacturing enterprises of metallurgy enterprises and machine-building complex constaining ions of chrom, copper, nickel and zinc

Khalturina Tamara I., Bobric Anastasiya G. 27-34 p

The article presents the results of experimental data on the intensification of the process of galvanic coagulation treatment of sewage containing hexavalent chromium, copper, nickel and zinc ions. There were righteous investigations into the recycling of a part of the sediment upon its introduction after the treatment of the galvanocoagulation module, to improve and accelerate sedimentation processes in a subsequent vertical settler. Results are shown using X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analysis to study the properties and composition of the sediment formed during galvanic coagulation recovery of Cr2O7 2- ,Cu 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+ ions from wastewater with the use of galvanocarp Fe-activated carbon (AC). These properties and composition of the sludge of effluents containing ions of non-ferrous and heavy metals is relevant for the development of technology for its utilization, since it allows solving problems of reducing the technogenic impact on the environment.

Dialectics of the totality of theoretical, methodological and normative
provisions applied for the design of the settlements sewage system

Shuvalov Mikhail V.стр 35-45

On the base of the system analysis of technical literature and regulatory documentation on the sewerage of sett lements and industrial enterprises it is established that in the history of the development of sanitary equipment for the period from the middle of the 19th century onwards up to the present time it is possible to roughly distinguish fi ve stages diff ering from each other in that for a certain period of time in developed countries a certain system of theoretical and normative provisions on the collection, removal and disposal of sewage water dominated. In the fi rst quarter of the XX century the generally accepted paradigm is the method of sewerage of sett lements by a centralized scheme with the installation of communal sewage treatment plants by a biological method. At the beginning of the XXI century there is a paradigm shift in the collection, management and purifi cation of domestic wastewater due to the resumption of search for resource-saving technologies that reduce the emission of pollutants into the environment through the introduction of technological solutions for the separation of domestic (sanitary) wastewater into separate fl ows for the purpose production from waste water components of secondary products. In the short term, after the development and approval of normative documents regulating the basic sanitary rules and technological norms for the introduction of advanced modifi ed technologies for the separation of human excrement and household wastewater with the purpose of separate treatment with the disposal of sewage components, a gradual transition from a centralized to a decentralized separate sewerage system will be carried out domestic and sanitary sewage.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Features of the formation of steel-aluminum composite material structure

Bocharov Nikolay M.стр 46-50

The initiation of the process of decreasing the solubility of Fe in the direction of Al comes from the structural state of iron at the time of the exothermic phase transformation in the interval 450-550 ° C. Experimental curves for the thermal analysis of steel St0 have been constructed. Correlation of the eff ects between the heating rate function and the diff erential thermal analysis plot is established. According to the data obtained the thermal parameters of materials with an unconventional approach to research are more pronounced. In the compound of technical iron (C <0,025 %) and aluminum alloy (Mg-1,1 %, Si-0,5 %) the inhomogeneity of the transition zone was determined by the length of the joint. The study of photomicrographs of the cross section of welded points showed the shortcomings of metals near and along the contact line in the form of cracks, porosity, nonmetallic inclusions.

Investigation of the influence of alumina additive on sintering of low-melting clay by the dta diagram section

Krasheninnikov Maxim V. стр 51-55

A variant of using low-melting clays for the production of clinker products is considered. In this case it is customary to modify the charge with additives, refractory and refractory clays. A promising approach is to use a relatively small amount of additive with correction of the fi ring regime. The composition of clinker mass with a complex alumina additive based on industrial waste products is optimized and developed. The W-SID method including preliminary discrete fi ring, diff erential thermal analysis and compression strength test provides diagrams that give a complete picture of the relationship between the amount of the complex additive in the charge and the fi ring regime.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Study of the process of cavitation erosion on the impellers of the zhiguli hydroelectric power plant

Romanov Alexey A., Evdokimov Sergey V., Seliverstov Vladimir A. стр 56-59

The results of studying the process of cavitation erosion on the blades of the impellers of the Zhigulevskaya hydroelectric power plant are presented. The technique of carrying out full-scale cavitation tests by the method of high-speed erosion with the use of soft metal plates pasted onto the suspected zones of the appearance of cavitation damages is described. Cavitation tests were carried out for three characteristic operating modes, with a substantiation of the technological peculiarity of full-scale operation of hydroturbine installations. The results of the investigation of the turbine blades of the unit No. 5 for three regimes are presented. Areas of destruction of the peripheral edges of the impeller blade are visualized. The results of research on the fl ow parameters for diff erent regimes are given in tabular form.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

Dismantling of the building in the city

Doladov Yury I., Dobryanin Konstantin E., Khmylyova Olga Yu., Vasilchikova Zinaida F. стр 60-64

The results of preparations for dismantling and demolition work of a semi-destroyed two-storeyed apartment building with a basement in the central part of Samara are presented. The dwelling house adjoining the destroyed house has a common wall with it. The object is on the street with active pedestrian and automobile traffi c. For the demolition of a residential house a project for the production of work (PPW) was developed with incomplete initial data. The document selected the means of mechanization, determined the sequence of work, shows the most dangerous elements in the production of works, proposed security measures. The work of the contractor for an additional survey of a dangerous object using a quadrocopter DJI Phantom 3 Standard is refl ected. An additional correction of the PPW is introduced. The illustrations of both the design part and the order of the works on the dismantling of the building are given.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION AND URBAN ECONOMICS

Permafrost soils thawing under buildings in norilsk

Poroshina Svetlana S. стр 65-70

The experience of the construction of buildings on permafrost in the city of Norilsk is considered, the main methods of construction under the given conditions are indicated, their advantages and disadvantages are revealed. The study of the localization of deformations in the building, the nature of the deformations shows their consequences. It is revealed that the main cause of mass destruction of buildings is the fi ssion of the soil under the building. The main possible causes of this process are indicated. The economic costs associated with the elimination of the consequences of destruction caused by the ground-breaking have been analyzed, and methods for solving this problem have been proposed.

On the influence of solar activity on the hydrochemical composition of the water of the samara river

Shabanov Vsevolod A., Khryanina Anastasia A. стр 71-73

A brief description of the water in the Samara River is given. The data on hydrochemical parameters of the river water for the period 2005-2015 are given. Indicators are marked out, sharply changing their values in the period under review. For such studies the indicator-the oxygen concentration-was selected. It was revealed with the help of statistical methods that the series of observations under consideration is divided into two samples with diff erent sample averages. It is graphically proved that the sharp jump in oxygen concentration was due to the infl uence of solar activity. The dependence of the sulfate content in the Samara River on solar activity for the period from 2005 to 2015 was studied. Calculations have been made that prove the hypothesis of the infl uence of solar activity on the hydrochemical composition of the water of the Samara River.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Primary foundations of the architectural form

Valshin Rasim M. стр 74-81

The article is devoted to the methodology of organization of functional processes of vital activity in architecture in the form of spatial structures. The primary foundations of the generation and emergence of new forms in modern architecture are considered and comprehended. It is shown that the study of a number of modern architecture objects that mark the history of the formation of the modern movement, through analysis, comparison and identifi cation of unique spatial structures, allows us to establish the relationship between the formalism of modern architecture and the new content of the newest architecture. It is noted that modern architecture in its development is able to rely on its own constituent internal forces, transforming primarily the idea of the organization of the functional structure of space. Today the well-known principles of modern architecture used in architecture by the pioneers of the international movement are freely interpreted and developed by many leaders of the newest architecture. The newest architecture demonstrates an intensifi ed search for new methods of spatial thinking solely for the sake of a breakthrough to new principles of shaping in architecture.

Jean-nicolas-louis durand: machine of architecture

Danilova Elina V. стр 82-88

The article deals with the design methodology invented by the French architect Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand as a machine of mass production of architecture. The author describes the historical and temporal background which determined the requirements for the design and construction of a large number of public buildings. The historical parallel between diff erent epochs when urban expansion became the reason for the invention of methods of high-speed and simple design of various objects is studied. Duran’s methodology is described based on the analysis of two theoretical works. The positive and negative aspects of the project approach based on such methodology are investigated. The role of Duran’s work in the process of creating architecture for the modern city is established.

Architectural and planning formation of industrial area of kuybyshev – bezymyanka, in the 1930s–1950s

Samogorov Vitaly A. стр 89-94

The process of forming the architectural and planning structure of the industrial area of the city of Kuibyshev in the mainstream of the theoretical concept of the 1930s. – a socialist city – is considered. The specifi cs of the process of designing and building the largest in the USSR industrial hub of the aviation industry and the residential area serving it in the conditions of the transitional stage of the prewar, military and post-war period are revealed. The existing building of the district is analyzed on three hierarchical levels of the organization – industrial-residential area, residential quarters, residential buildings. The architectural and compositional features of the existing urban environment are determined.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Principles of the contextual approach and the concept of residential buildings designing in the historic quarters of the city

Vologdina Natalya N., Yarukov Viktor N. стр 95-101

The problems of residential buildings designing in the historic quarters of the city are considered. A judgment is given about the origins of contextualism. Att ention is drawn to various positions in creating a full-fl edged environment, taking into account a wide range of issues of its comprehension and development. On the basis of the adopted concept of the contextual approach the principles demonstrated with the help of three-dimensional models are formulated. As a research area and priority intervention a specifi c area of urban fabric with regular planning is selected. Contextual design techniques are off ered which can be used as a tool in professional activity. The importance and value of the approach returning to the city its historical memory is emphasized.

History of development of sectional type mass housing in russia

Generalova Elena M. стр 102-107

The history of typological development of apartment houses of sectional type is considered as the most complex, constantly developing housing on the territory of Russia. Particular attention is paid to the search for economical sectional houses with small apartments for further mass construction and experimental design work for the sett lement and their introduction in the pilot demonstration and experimental construction of the 9th and 12th microdistricts of Moscow. The system of stage-by-stage development of mass housing in the territory of Russia is disclosed until the 1990s. and in subsequent periods. It is proposed to single out six main stages in the development of mass housing with the defi nition of characteristic features for each stage. The euphoria of the construction of residential apartments and houses which was observed in the 90’s. has passed and at the present time the seventh stage in the development of residential buildings is being formed but this stage requires its solution and comprehension.

The phenomenon of art nouveau: towards a typology of decorative elements in the architecture of samara modern

Ivanova Ludmila I., Litvinov Denis V. стр 108-113

Modernism is considered as a phenomenon of world culture at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, its features in the architecture of European countries, in Russia and, in particular, in Samara. The stages of development of the Samara Art Nouveau and its composition-decorative and color features are highlighted in detail. The existing semantic typology of decorative elements of modern style is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the compositional aspects of the shaping of decorative elements of modernism with the identifi cation of the simplest geometric forms. The main color principles and color combinations of the Art Nouveau architecture are revealed, on the basis of which specifi c recommendations on the splitt ing of one of the Samara mansions in the Neo-Renaissance style are off ered.

Environmental problems of the megapolis

Karakova Tatyana V. стр 114-116

The article deals with the evolution of the environmental consciousness of the population of a megapolis in the conditions of the development of the postindustrial epoch of town planning, when such concepts as “the att ractiveness of the city, the prestige of the address of residence, the ecological background, the level of improvement” become indicators of the level of its development. The author reveals the basics of the contradiction between the creative qualities of the above factors and their dominant characteristics that facilitate the emergence of a megapolis on the international market for competition and investment. The search for regularities in the development of the spatial-functional environment of the megapolis is actualized depending on the specifi city and level of the environmental consciousness and behavior of the townspeople. The author analyzes modern approaches to the formation in the megalopolis of “creative industries”, which are creative activities, including urban design, advertising, architecture, crafts, furniture design, clothing design and design, cinema and video, graphic design, museums and architectural heritage, Fine arts, music, television, radio and the Internet.

Role of the context in the rehabilitation of urban areas disturbed by industrial activity

Rybakova Daria S., Fedotov Alexandr S. стр 117-121

The article is devoted to the study of problems of urban areas, disturbed by industrial activity, as well as methods of their rehabilitation and inclusion in the city public life. In the course of the research domestic and foreign experience was analyzed using the example of realized objects of the last 10-15 years refl ecting two principal approaches to solving this issue: demolition and complete cleaning of the territory with subsequent new construction; full or partial modifi cation of the functional program of the facility while preserving the most valuable elements from the architectural and planning point of view, and complementing them with modern architectural objects (reconstruction). The methods of reconstruction are listed and classifi ed: restoration, modernization, restructuring, revitalization and renovation. According to the results of the research the main principle that architects should follow is att ention to the context of the place in all its manifestations (historical, social, fi gurative-emotional, natural or urban).

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

The singularity of the dome’s forms of samara’s art nouveau architecture and eclecticism of the early

Kotenko Irina A. стр 122-129

The paper examines one of the characteristic fi nishing elements of the roofs of buildings – the dome. The originality of forms and varieties of their application is noted, fi rst of all in the Аrt Nouveau architecture, as well as in neoclassicism and various stylizations in the provincial city of Samara of the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the special signifi cance of the peculiar form in the composition of the building and the town-planning application. The widespread varieties of domes in the considered period of town-planning development are investigated and classifi ed. Due to its infl uence on the surrounding area, panoramas and silhouett es of the city, the domes retain their special town-planning signifi – cance. In the modern architecture of Samara, there has been an interest in this composite element, which is a kind of code of a historical city. The article considers modern examples of dome completions in Samara buildings.

New meaning of urban public spaces

Lekareva Nina A., Zaslavskaya Anna Yu. стр 130-134

The problems of renovation of urban public spaces of modern megacities are considered with the introduction of new functions and more active inclusion of transport infrastructure in the design process in order to att ract the visitors. Positive examples of such an integrated approach in foreign projects are given. Questions of technically and aesthetically competent landscaping of large cities are being raised. The data of the accounting of the volumes of landscaping of the city of Samara are given, they are compared with the generally accepted standards of gardening. The shortcomings of the domestic practice of point-like landscaping of megacities and methods for solving environmental and other problems with the help of landscape design are exemplifi ed by the example of Samara.

Evolution of residential elements and public spaces of the external living environment in samara

Filanova Tatyana V., Filanova Tatyana V. стр 135-141

The article deals with the problem of the discrepancy between the quality of the external residential environment of the local level and the current needs of the townspeople and the problem of formalizing the approach to the transformation of public spaces of the residential environment. The search for solutions is proposed to be based on individual features of the elements of the residential environment of the city and the specifi cs of local public spaces in them. An important factor in choosing measures for the transformation of local public spaces (LPS) is the study of the historical background and degree of «centrality» of the territories. The evolution of residential quarters from the position of public spaces formed in them is considered. The typology of residential cells and public spaces in the process of formation and at the present stage is revealed. The types of planning structure of residential elements of the urban environment in Samara are analyzed in chronological order from the time of the fi rst regular city plan to the present.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

INDUSTRIAL THERMAL POWER

The mixing of a jet of carbon dioxide from smashing subsonic flow

Balandina Olga A. стр 142-145

Presents the results of a numerical calculation of the interaction of the jet of carbon dioxide from smashing subsonic air fl ow. Were identifi ed and analyzed pressure values, the trajectories of the jet, the velocity profi les at small blowing intensities. The comparison of calculation results with experimental data of other authors. The obtained curves of the temperature distribution for carrying air fl ow and the jet issued from a slit-like holes with aspect ratios 1:2; 1:3; 1:4. Analysis of the results showed that the geometrical parameters of the jet blowing holes does not signifi cantly aff ect the temperature distribution in the region behind the jet. The research results can be used in the design of the jet bodies of the gas burners of boilers. Will conduct further modeling to enhance the process of formation of the gas-air mixture in the gas jet type burners.