Edition 4

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Definition Durability of Reinforced Concrete Matrices for Explosive Stamping by Tensometric Methods

Murashkin G.V., Snegireva A.I., Kretov D.A., Zhiltsov Yu.V. pp.4-9

In this paper experimental studies of ring-shaped reinforced concrete matrices for explosive stamping on deformation indexes under the effect of impulse loads are viewed. The study was carried out on sample, which was subjected to explosive loading. The results of calibration tests using the “Dynamics-1” strain gauge complex are presented. The dependence of the tension in the matrix on the reaction of the strain gauge system is obtained. The obtained experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations. The general results of the studies obtained are given taking into account their further use for serial testing of matrices in order to determine their durability.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING

The Use of Monolithic Foam Concrete in Enclosing Structures of Buildings and Structures with Variable Thermal Conditions

Vytchikov Yu.S., Saparev M.Ye., Golikov V.A. pp.10-14

This article considers the features of the use of monolithic foam concrete as a heat-insulating layer in the building enveloping structures of buildings operated under intermittent heating conditions. To assess the eff ectiveness of the use of monolithic foam concrete in building enveloping structures, a thermal engineering calculation of the outer wall, insulated with the use of monolithic foam concrete, was carried out. Based on the calculations carried out by the authors, graphs of the dependence of the heating time of multilayered enclosing structures on the thickness of the heat-insulating layer and the reduced resistance to heat transfer of the structure were obtained. The optimum range of thicknesses and densities of monolithic foam concrete for thermal insulation of external walls of buildings, operated in conditions of intermittent heating, is offered. This calculation also showed that the use of foam concrete as a heater from the inside of the outer wall can reduce the load on the foundation of the building.

Study of the Heat-Shielding Characteristics of Double-Layer Exterior Walls of Buildings with Intermittent Heating

Chulkov A.A. pp.15-18

The description of the thermal regime of an individual building operated in the intermitt ent heating mode is presented. A technique has been developed for determining the required thickness of two-layer external walls, which ensures the fulfillment of sanitary-hygienic and comfortable living conditions, as well as the minimum time for their heating in the process of a room’s heating. On the basis of the author’s methodology, the heat engineering calculation of a two-layer outer wall of a frame building, insulated with a ventilated facade, was carried out. The results of the thermal calculation of the two-layer outer wall of the building, operated under intermitt ent heating, are presented. The graph shows the change in the temperature of the internal air in individual buildings that are operated periodically.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

Integrated disinfection device of agricultural drains

Bulat A.D., Filenkov V.M., Obrubov V.A., Seleznev V.A., Lushkin I.A. pp.19-23

Studies of the electro-technological treatment of waste water of large livestock farms indicate the possibility of integrated implementation of the principles of hydrodynamic, electromagnetic, electrochemical and bioenergetic disinfection of objects infected with pathogenic microorganisms in the electro-technological installation (ETI). Improving the efficiency of decontamination by means of ETI indicates the promise of this approach from the standpoint of energy, environmental and resource conservation, its transfer will significantly reduce the man-made burden on the environment and ensure the required level of environmental safety of the population and staff .

Cleaning of Oil-Containing Wastewater

Bystranova A.O., Teplykh S.Yu., Teplykh E.A. pp.24-28

The regularities of changes in the composition of wastewater, methods of cleaning and technological schemes of the oil extraction industry and the processes of formation of wastewater of the oil extraction plant CJSC Samaraagroprompererabotka and their chemical and physical indicators are studied. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment by reagent methods using known, analog and new reagents, on a model solution was investigated. An analytical dependence describing the processes of increasing the efficiency of new technological processes (discrete and binary) reagent purification has been carried out. The economic efficiency of the proposed methods for treating oil-fat-containing wastewater is determined.

Analysis of Technological Solutions of Water Supply Systems of Single-Industry Towns of the Republic of Karelia

Kim A.N., Grafova E.O., Evtifeev Yu.P. pp.29-36

On the example of single-industry towns of the Republic of Karelia the article shows the possibility of restoring the activities of enterprises depending on the state of engineering support of water supply systems. There was a decrease in water consumption, high wear of water treatment plants, the lack of reagent treatment of colored water and, as a result, inefficient operation of facilities. It is shown that the reconstruction is possible with the application of the investment program. Projects have been developed for the reconstruction of the technological scheme for purifying low-turbid, high-color water and creating a circulating system for cleaning the wash water of
contact illuminators.

History of Development of Samara Water Pipes

Strelkov A.K., Teplykh S.Yu., Gorshkalev P.A., Teplykh A.A. pp.37-43

The article shows the history of the development of water supply in Samara. The main stages of the development of the Samara water pipeline, starting from 1885 (creation of the first water pipeline project) to 2011 (completion of construction and commissioning of an ultraviolet water treatment plant), are presented. The historical background of the creation of the Samara water pipeline project and the construction of the water supply system is given. It is told about the need for continuous expansion and improvement of the water supply system, as a result of which city water treatment plants, pumping and filtering stations, pumping stations of the second and third lifting, as well as new water lines were built. It is concluded that the construction of the Samara water pipeline is due to the rapidly growing number of residents and the developing industry in the city.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Mechanisms of Structure Formation in Nonfired Composite Building Materials

Abramenko A.A., Volkov V., Britvina E.A. pp.44-49

Currently one of the tasks of materials science is to find ways to reduce the cost of building materials. Studies have shown that the initial strength of the starting components does not affect the properties of the material. The article presents a study of the physicochemical processes occurring on the surface of dispersed components, the influence of the thickness of water films on the strength of the final material. The interdependence between the area of the endo-eff ects of thermograms and the strength of the materials obtained is considered. A model of interaction in dispersed systems is proposed, which allows one to influence the structure formation of composite materials in a targeted manner. Research is aimed at studying the patt erns of physicochemical processes on the surface of fine particles, the understanding of which allows us to predict, and subsequently set the properties of the materials obtained.

Optimization of the Composition of the Raw Material Mixture of Low-temperature Cement on the Basis of Fuel-containing Coal Preparation Waste

Ryazanov A.A., Latypov V.M., Ryazanov A.N., Ryazanova V.A. pp.50-55

The article presents a method for calculating the composition of a two-component raw material mixture for producing lime-clay cement based on fuel-containing technogenic waste – gravitational waste of coal enrichment. A method for determining the optimal ratio of components in the charge, taking into account the calorific properties of the waste, is given. The key parameter, in this case, is the energy efficiency ratio. The purpose of the calculation is to determine the ratio of components in the charge, which ensures maximum economy of process fuel. The results indicate the possibility of complete elimination of process fuel from the production cycle at the steady-state thermal process through the use of coal preparation waste.

Heat-Resistant Compositions Based on Waste of Enterprises of Ceramic Industry

Khlystov A.I., Isaev D.I., Podgornaya D.A. pp.56-60

The article presents various methods of synthesizing heat-resistant binders based on large-tonnage wastes of the ceramic industry. The use of expanded clay dust in the compositions of heat-resistant concrete on portlandcement allowed to increase their residual strength in the zone of critical temperatures (800–1000 ° C). It was revealed and justified that the use of phosphate binders for synthesizing a binder made it possible to increase the refractoriness of the heat-resistant composition based on expanded clay dust to 1300–1350 с. As the experiments show, claydite dust in its composition contains a clay component, which ensures the plasticity of the ramming mass. It was established that samples of ramming mass on orthophosphoric acid did not require heat treatment and can be immediately removed.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Mechanisms and Principles for the Renovation of Stagnant Areas of Metallurgical Enterprises

Blaginykh E.A, Drozhzhin R.A. pp.61-66

The industrial territories of the enterprises of ferrous metallurgy located within the city are considered, their problems at the present stage and historical and cultural significance are revealed. Ways of an effective mechanism for improving the environmental quality of stagnant industrial areas in cities of the Siberian region are analyzed and determined. Theoretical positions and practical recommendations for the formation of strategies for the renovation of industrial areas were developed. The basic principles of the formation of public ecological spaces are formulated during the renovation of the stagnant territories of metallurgical plants located in the central regions of industrial cities. The theoretical principles of this study have been tested in the development strategy of the stagnant territory of the sludge pit of the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine.

Komsomolskaya Square of Samara as a Subject of Functional and Topological Analysis

Denisov D.V., Zhuravlev M.Y., Medvedeva N.Y., Khokhrin A.S. pp.67-73

The article attempts to understand the functional zoning of eight sectors of space as applied to Komsomolskaya Square in the city of Samara. Functional and topological analysis based on Vaastu-vidya, the ancient Indian science of construction and ritual development of sites, offers a generalized method for assessing the prospective use of the territory and allows you to critically evaluate the correctness of the location of objects included in the ensemble of Komsomolskaya Square over the past 20 years. The results of the study can be significant both for architects and specialists in land management and cadastre, as well as for improving the infrastructure of the Russian railway.

Architecture and Modern Syaye of Samara Buildings Implemented on Sample Projects

Yozhikova E.Yu. pp.74-79

The architecture of the city of Samara of the XIX century, made on exemplary projects. The formation of the architectural environment of the city is investigated. A detailed analysis of the current state of the buildings of Samara, executed on model projects, was carried out. On the example of several monuments, their typical history of reorganizations and changes is considered. On the basis of archival research and analysis of the current state of development, features and decorative solutions of buildings are revealed. The results of the successful study of a successful past, analyze the present, which helps to prepare the basic principles of successful restoration and renovation of historic buildings.

Metal Decoration of Buildings and Constructions on the Territory of the Orenburg Province

Ponomarenko E.V. pp.80-85

The study was carried out at the expense of the State Program of the Russian Federation “Development of Science and Technology” for 2013-2020 in the framework of the Basic Research Plan of the Ministry of Construction of Russia and the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences Academy of Sciences, topic 1.2.5. The article analyzes the use of metal casting in the construction of settlements in the territory of the former Orenburg province. The appearance of the first industrial settlements of the region is considered. On the basis of the author’s on-site surveys and analysis of archival materials, samples of the use of metal parts in decorating and constructive solutions of houses, estates and churches of the Orenburg province in the XVIII-XIX centuries are revealed. The current practice of using metal in decorative decoration of residential houses for independent construction is analyzed.

Review of Modern Russian Participatory Practices

Repina E.A., Zakharchenko M.A. pp.86-92

The article provides a brief overview of some areas of participatory practices in Russian cities. Methods of interaction with citizens at different levels, ways and possibilities of their involvement for the joint solution of tasks and problems in the city (from improvement of the yard to town-planning projects) are considered. Programs to support the initiatives of residents and urban development activists help in the implementation of projects to improve the urban environment. All kinds of training programs help in the study of the city structure, contribute to the understanding of its internal relationships, who and how affects the city. The probable positive and negative sides of the considered practices are revealed.

Features of the Architectural and Town Planning Heritage of the Town of Solvychegodsk, Arkhangelsk Region

Sidorova A.V. pp.93-97

The main stages of the formation of the town-planning structure of the city of Solvychegodsk in the 16th – early 20th century are analyzed. The monuments of religious and civil architecture are studied. Brief information about the two main cathedrals of the city – Blagoveshchensky and Vvedensky of the Vvedensky Monastery, the last of which is an outstanding monument in the style of Stroganov’s Baroque, as well as about the two remaining churches – the Savior and Vladimir is cited. The most interesting monuments of stone and wooden civil architecture are listed, their regional features are revealed.

Wooden Buildings of Mechanical Mills and Grain Barns of the Samara Province of the End of XIX – early XX Century

Sysoeva E.A. pp.98-104

The article describes the building of mechanical mills and grain barns of the Samara province. The types of mill constructions, volume-spatial, planning, design features are shown. Transitional types of buildings from wind and water mills to mechanical are identified. The features of the formation of the external architectural appearance of the mills, the relationship with the technological processes of production are determined. Mill buildings are considered as part of industrial complexes, which also include buildings for the placement of engines, grain barns and elevators, offices, residential buildings.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Architectural typology of high-rise housing in Dubai

Generalova E.M. pp.105-111

The history of the development of high-rise construction in Dubai with the identification of stages of varying intensity is considered . It is shown how in just a few decades it was possible to turn the desert into a modern megalopolis with a developed infrastructure and attract thousands of foreigners here. The leading position of this unique city in the world statistics on the number of built skyscrapers and the dominance of the residential function in their structure are emphasized. The criteria of the term “the high life” for Dubai, uniqueness, trends and development prospects are analyzed. The regional specifi city of the design of high-rise residential buildings in Dubai is determined. An architectural typology of high-rise housing in Dubai has been developed with the identification of the main types of integration of the residential function in the structure of high-rise buildings and complexes, as well as variants of their space-planning models.

Concept of Space in Philosophy and Cultural Studies of the XX Century

Orlov D.N., Orlova N.A. pp.112-117

A review of some concepts of man-made space of the twentieth century is given. The main part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the «second nature» in the Soviet and Western European branches of Marxism. The difference of approaches and criticism of some points are presented. One of the examples of the linguistic school of – the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur and some examples of existential philosophy philosophy are considered. The concepts and approaches common to different schools of philosophical thought are revealed. The connection of philosophical concepts and professional architectural studies is shown. It can be concluded about the general corpus of the space conclusions, which unites the discourses of different schools. The sum of these concepts allows us to form, with further development, a general theory of man-made space.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

Tower Building in the Modern City: the Imperfection of the Ideal

Kotenko I.A. pp.118-124

The article views the tower building as one of the modern methods of planning residential areas. The uniqueness and significance of the vertical form in the composition of the city at all historical stages of its existence are noted. The author considers the evolution of the tower as an element of the composition from the unique to the mass use and the formation of the reception of urban planning composition. Due to its influence on the surrounding space, panoramas and silhouettes of the city, tower building retains its special urban planning value. Recently, in almost all Russian major cities, there has been an interest in this planning technique, which is increasingly called high-rise buildings and has an ambiguous assessment in a historic city. The article discusses modern examples of tower building in Samara and analyzes the problems of its urban planning application.

Socio-Cultural Phenomenon of Historical Territories. Wooden Fortress of Samara

Malysheva S.G., Shlienkova E.V. pp.125-132

The architectural and planning features of wooden fortresses of the city of Samara, built next to each other with a time interval of 120 years, are considered. The origins of one of the unique spatial characteristics of Samara, a special historical code of development of its territory, are analyzed, when at each new stage of development in the city a new center was formed with a consistent movement higher and higher along the watershed from the arrow of the Volga and Samara rivers. The emergence of this spatial expansion is justified by the construction of a second wooden fortress as a new urban center, but not in the place of the burnt first fortress, but in the neighboring territory after 200 m. Since at the moment both fortresses have not survived, with the exception of basement fragments , the authors analyze the possibilities of a new reading of the “memory of the place” and the restoration of the cultural and genetic code of the city that was lost in due time. The article proposes an algorithm for the development and subsequent comprehensive implementation of the historical and cultural strategy of urban development, based on the creation of unique models of public spaces that can connect the past and the present in a new spatial paradigm. The concept of an interactive platform is considered with the aim of promoting a sociocultural project and drawing public attention to the problem of the irretrievable loss of the historical and cultural heritage.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, NETWORKS, AND GRIDS

Research of Multi-Component Heat Carries and Development of Technical Means of their Receiving

Korotin S.Yu., Shchelokov A.I. pp.133-136

The possibility and expediency of using multicomponent coolants in thermal technological processes, obtained by injection and subsequent evaporation of small water droplets by direct contact with the products of complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel, is considered. The results of studies of the formation of gas-vapor mixture in the heat generator with the injection of superheated water into the stream of products of complete combustion of gas fuel are given.