Edition 2

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF RESEARCH IN MODERN URBAN PLANNING

The algorithm of assessment of urban development based on the principles of biospheric compatibility

Bakaeva N.V., Chernyaeva I.V. pp.5-14

In order to create an environment favorable for human development and preservation of the natural environment of the city by means of architecture and urban planning, the need for theoretical justification of urban planning and urban development practices, taking into account the new requirements for the mechanisms of formation of the urban environment. Based on the fundamental principles of the concept of biosphere compatibility, an algorithm for assessing urban development was developed, criteria and indicators for assessing the quality of the urban environment were determined. Using the developed algorithm, the analysis of the feasibility of the principles of biosphere compatibility in urban development of the city of Orel. It is concluded that it is necessary to create an innovative system of employment and strategic planning for the development of urban areas on the principles of biosphere compatibility.

To the problem of enlightened pluralism in Russian town planning

Danilova E.V. pp.15-21

The article is devoted to the study of processes in Russian urban planning over the past three decades. This period is marked by the birth and formation of a new city growing out of the Soviet urban environment. The article discusses the three conditional stages of the city after restructuring, exploring their specifi city. The context and features of each of the considered stages are described: 1990s, 2000s. 2010s. The state of the architectural and town-planning profession is analyzed, the goals and tasks of which changed in accordance with social transformations. Particular att ention is paid to the typology of constructed objects, the development of the architectural order in the context of a market economy. The innovations at each stage are matched, special events that aff ect professional thinking and design methodology are emphasized. The author explores how the two recognized theoretical models of the city – the collage city and the generic city – were adapted to the post-Soviet reality.

On the issue of urban planning and environmental regulation. The experience of France 2000-2018

Isleeva S.Ya. pp.22-26

Mechanisms of city regulation are always complex and affect many areas of society. The concept of regulation itself should take into account both real needs and strategic goals, as well as the possibilities of the tools for its subsequent application. It is obvious that these mechanisms cannot be universal for different territories and political entities, and their functioning requires a developed administrative and legal base. It is worth noting that often local requests are in conflict with global geopolitical tasks, the implementation of which has certain risks and does not guarantee the same success in individual territories. Even in a relatively small area of France, it is difficult to develop equally effective universal regulatory mechanisms. The task of the reform started in the 1980s. in France, there was a process of decentralization of the administrative system in order to develop the most flexible mechanisms of territorial regulation. The changes that followed in the legislation on grado-regulation (Code de l’urbanisme) formed the legal framework of territorial relations, while the direct tools are created in hierarchically coordinated local entities – from region to city. Such a solution is intended to form working mechanisms for regulating the environment with possible consideration of all levels of interests, sometimes overlapping and contradictory. The article discusses the hierarchical system of urban regulation, currently used in France, highlights its strategic objectives, as well as the issues of the direct application of these regulations in practice: • principles for the development of local city-regulatory documents and their main characteristics, • composition of town planning documentation, • main tools and features of the application of urban planning documentation. The article also addresses the problems of the functioning of urban planning documentation in the context of complex and controversial issues related to renovation, revalorization of individual territories, and negative public attitudes.

Analysis of Architectural and Town Planning Technologies for the Regulation of Migration Pressure in Megalopolises

Karakova T.V. pp.27-32

Examples of a number of European countries are being considered in solving the problems of locating migration flows in the functional planning structure of megacities and their zones of influence. Experience in using architectural and town-planning technologies for the integration of migrants into the urban environment is reviewed. Filling urban planning with new content affects the pace of social and economic development of the megalopolis and megalopolis, the elimination of regional developmental imbalances, the improvement of living standards and the quality of the urban environment, the improvement of the social climate and demographic situation. At the same time on the agenda are issues of development of medium and small cities located in the zones of influence of the largest megacities. The author reveals the approaches to the formation of a multi-level urbanization model of migration based on the development of European experience, taking into account the realities of Russian megalopolises.

Agenda sustainability: plans, outcomes and monitoring

Pidodnya M. pp.33–39

Two modern large-scale city-planning projects are considered using a comparative analysis method – master plans for two sites for mixed functional use: one in the city of Sochi, the Russian Federation, and the second in the Zayudas area near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The author outlines innovative principles in the design of the site in Sochi as part of the former infrastructure of the Olympic Games with tasks in three main blocks: development, mobility and energy supply to obtain the maximum result – a modern, sustainable, high-density and attractive area. In the Zayudas area, the tasks of urban planning of a high-density area concentrated on a transport hub were completed. Monitoring the sustainability of the area includes the following seven areas: mobility, public spaces, development and food supply, energy, waste management and circularity, water and greenery, society. An att empt has been made to form an image of an important international top platform for entrepreneurs and knowledge-intensive institutions, which makes it possible to count on the dissemination of this design experience. The results of testing in the process of implementing the Zayudas district show the possibility of using the proposed European practices of urban planning in the Russian context.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

NEW PUBLIC SPACES AND SOCIAL ACTIVITY CENTERS IN THE CITY ENVIRONMENT OF MEGAPOLISES

Museum and Archaeological Complexes in the Structure of the City as a New Trend of Urban Development

Antyufeeva O.A. pp.40-45

The development of museum and archaeological complexes as public spaces of modern megacities is a new trend of urban development. Beginning the second half of the 20th century, the museum architecture experienced a great transformation. Increasing the level of openness, both to society and to urban space, predetermined the formation of a new scenario for museum activities and a new planning structure. Deep penetration into the environment, a high level of interactivity of modern museums have contributed to the creation of new urban structures – museum neighborhoods and other spatial museum entities. The current trend in the development of modern museums is the increase in the number of so-called environmental museums created on the basis of museum-specifi c monuments, which are the most visited among the total number of museums. These cultural complexes, representing the urban artistic environment, have become part of the public center of the city and set new goals for architectural and town-planning development. From the architecture of the museum-temple to the new look of the “museum as a city” – such is the transformation of modern museum architecture. The paper analyzes various examples of new forms of exhibiting objects of the archaeological heritage in an urban environment as part of public spaces.

Features of placement of high-rise buildings in the structure of cities

Generalov V.P., Generalova E.M., Sokolov I.I. pp.46-52

The article is devoted to the search for modern approaches in creating high-density buildings due to the inclusion of high-rise buildings in the structure of large cities. The way from the beginning of the construction of the first high-rises in the cities of Europe and up to the present period is analyzed. The study revealed the main errors that were made when placing skyscrapers in European cities, their subsequent negative impact on the attitude to these types of buildings. In addition, the authors propose when locating high-rise buildings, determine their typological and functional structure, the correct ratio and richness of various functional serving elements, the number and density of high-rise buildings in the territory allocated for their construction. It is concluded that only with the observance of these basic principles can a convenient, comfortable, aff ordable, modern, constantly updated urban environment be created.

Information Technology Model of Modern City Public Space

Ptichnikova G.A., Chernichkina O.V. pp.53–60

The article is devoted to the study of new types of urban spaces that owe their origin to the development of information and communication technologies. An innovative factor that influenced the transformation of public spaces in the XXI century was the emergence of the media and information sphere. The widespread use of personal computers and the home Internet in the 1990s led to a decline in publicity and a crisis in traditional urban social communications. Currently, a new type of personality is being created, prone to limited contacts with other individuals in certain conditions (for example, in social networks). The information technology model of public space transfers social connections to the virtual world, thus reducing the need for the development of physical urban spaces. Information technology has led to the development of new forms of public spaces. Among them we will note such as “smart square”/”smart street”, media spaces and flash mob spaces. The results of the study of the characteristics of these new urban spaces are presented in the article.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

TRANSPORT COMFORT AND INNOVATIVE TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGIES IN THE POST-INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLYSES AND REGIONS

Principles of Architectural and Spatial Formation of a Safe Transport Infrastructure of the City

Lekareva N.A., Papshev N.S. pp.61-67

The article considers the most optimal approaches to the development and development of transit areas, affecting the actual problems of a modern large city: the development of citywide functions based on promising transportation hubs, the resolution of the confl ict of transit passenger directions and the urban social environment. As one of the main mechanisms to achieve safety in the operation of urban transport systems, the principles of architectural and spatial formation of transport infrastructure are put forward, including the principle of biopositivity in the structure of transport territories, the principle of environmental safety of transport, the principle of accessibility of transport, the principle of constructive safety, the principle of multi-level linear and central transport elements, the principle of universality of road maintenance. Examples are given from the practice of using these or other methods of forming transport nodes and linear sections in order to improve traffic safety. The possibilities of the development of safe transport structures in the strategic forecasts of the development of the city are shown.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THE “SMART CITY” IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY OF THE MEGAPOLIS

Principles of Phased Reorganization of the Architectural and Spatial Structure of the Urban Environment Based on Innovative Technologies

Akhmedova E.A., Vavilonskaya T.V. pp.68-79

The article discusses the main criteria for selection of the Russian Federation regions as a pilot sites in the federal program «Smart City. Successful region». The concept of participation in the Samara region has been developed. Indicators of the expected effectiveness of this innovative project are disclosed. Proposed new approaches to the development of Samara as a smart city. The socio-spatial basis of these approaches is the “triad of development agents”: a smart university, a smart city, a smart park factory. The scientific and design potential of Samara State Technical University is considered as a “smart” university. “Smart” park-factory is an industrial park of this University and its partners on the site of one of the former industrial enterprises. “Smart” city relies on the administrative and public organizations of urban development, activists of urban social movements. The goal is formulated and the objectives of a pilot project for the reorganization of the urban environment of the Samara city historical zone are stated. The pilot project goal and objectives for the urban environment reorganization of the Samara city historical zone are formulated. The selection and implementation of innovative technologies in the historic center of the city is determined by a number of proposed model projects – “Smart Quarter”, “Smart Street”, “Smart Square”. The expediency of introducing into the urban environment about 30 innovative technologies in the areas of resource conservation, public services, preservation of the architectural heritage, media technologies, transport and pedestrian infrastructure and fiscal taxation systems has been substantiated. Set out in detail six key criteria that determine а compliance of the historical settlement to the “smart city” concept: technology, environmental friendliness, management, mobility, heritage, people. For Samara as a historic city, the necessity of creating a competence regional center in the field of architectural heritage engineering restoration has been justified. It is concluded that the future implementation of pilot projects will contribute to the formation a sustainable urban environment of the largest city historical center, focused on the digital economy.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

“GREEN STANDARDS” AND ECO-TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE MEGAPOLIS

Urban planning study of the system of public communication centres in Samara

Zhogoleva A.V., Kurimshina A.V., Filimonova A.N. pp.80-90

Planning development of large cities, expansion and agglomeration of urban areas is carried out in close relationship with the development of urban public centers. The object of research in this work is the system of communicative spaces of the modern city – a complex, multi-component urban structure, elements of which can become urban areas, architectural objects and complexes, Central functions, social and local groups of cities, subjects of urban development, transport and pedestrian connections, objects of transport. To study such a multi-component system requires a multi-level urban planning, urban, sociological research, the purpose of which is to identify urban planning, communication, cognitive characteristics of urban centers of different levels, the formation of their boundaries and characteristics.

Translucent support structures and their effect on architectural forming

Popov A.V., Sorokoumova T.V., Yanova R.Yu., Timina A.I. pp.91-95

The study raises issues related to the use of translucent materials use for support elements. A review of the practice of using such materials in vertical and horizontal support structures has been carried out. The object of the study is buildings and structures constructed using translucent support structures. The subject of the research is the influence of translucent support structures on architectural forming. As a result of the study, a conclusion was made about a number of technologically determined hard restrictions that impose the use of such structures on the architect and at the same time their prospects for a number of typological groups of buildings.

Formation and features of certification of Russian environmental standards in construction

Sukhinina E.A. pp.96-103

The article describes the history of the creation of Russian “green” Councils and environmental standards in construction. The interrelation of domestic and foreign systems is revealed, the scope of application of eco-standards in Russia is determined. Sections of the environmental assessment of Russian standards are considered. The characteristic features of rating systems in Russia are identified. The analysis of the estimated categories of the eco-certification systems under consideration is carried out. It is concluded that at present, to improve the environmental friendliness of the architectural and urban planning space, Russian designers need separate versions of national eco-standards for architects and city planners, without overloading with technical and organizational requirements for certification.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORICAL BUILDING AND PRESERVATION OF IDENTITY IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Ten objects of Samara constructivism: strategy for preservation and restoration

Buss Simon, Samogorov V.A. pp.104-111

The surviving examples of the architecture of ‘Samara Constructivism’ from the 1920s and 1930s are surveyed, from which ten of the most valuable buildings in acute need of restoration are identified. The basic principles of a conservation strategy are formulated, primarily: authenticity – favouring conservation of original materials and architectural arrangements wherever possible; due consideration of the immediate architectural and urban contexts; and reversibility – a presumption against interventions of a permanent nature which might harm the historical signifi cance of the building. Concrete measures are described for restoring and adapting these buildings to modern use, including remedial works to building fabric, facade reconstruction and works to the adjacent streetscape and landscaping. Options for future use are discussed. These particular examples suggest the basis for a general approach to the restoration of Constructivist buildings of the 1920s and 1930s in Samara, in both functional and aesthetic terms, such that their authenticity and uniqueness is preserved.

Historical Background and Current Trends in the Development of Samara Embankments

Malysheva S.G. pp.112-117

Practical experience in the construction of urban embankments in coastal areas, as well as ways to implement possible projects are considered. The research task is to find a solution to new scenarios of the organic existence of the natural and man-made environment at the border of the city and water. Priority approaches are determined in solving the problem of organizing traffic flows along the coastline of urban areas. The analysis of the foreign experience of the last two decades, which substantiates the ways to comprehensively solve the complex problem of modern development of coastal territories, is carried out. Examples illustrate options for shaping public spaces of embankments and improving the transport situation in an urban environment of coastal zones.

Development of the St. Petersburg agglomeration in the XIX – early XX century

Sementsov S.V., Akulova N.A. pp.118-127

The relevance of the topic of the article is due to the beginning of the development program for the development of the largest St. Petersburg agglomeration in north-western Russia for the next 15–20 years (up to the 2030s). The specific goal of the article was to study the third, most mature stage of development of the metropolitan St. Petersburg agglomeration in 1801–1916 (taking into account the peculiarities of the formation of agglomeration at the previous stages). In the study of this topic, an integrated urban planning-landscape, functional and socio-economic analysis was used, based on a parallel study of archival materials and data of historical cartography. The main results were the conclusions that during the XIX – early XX centuries. the purposeful crystallization of the grand agglomeration was carried out, which included three belts: “external”, “middle”, “near” (as zones of intensive agglomeration), spatially extending from Yaroslavl to Riga. The near zone of agglomeration (zone of intensive agglomeration) united the belt zone (around St. Petersburg and the largest settlements and complexes), linear (along radial and ring highways) and nodal (around individual large settlements) constructions, extending in the latitudinal direction from the estuary of the r. Syasi to Narva and Ivangorod, and in the meridian direction – from the coast of the Gulf of Finland from Ino to the city of Luga. As part of this agglomeration, four subagglomerations were already being formed. This variant of the spatial formation and unique structuring of the metropolitan St. Petersburg agglomeration with the parallel development of subagglomerations is non-standard for the world history of urban planning. The article materials can be useful both for historians of urban planning and for modern urbanists.

Traditional Living Environment of Kuban Settlements

Subbotin O.S. pp.128-135

The main objective of the presented scientific research is to identify the patterns of historical continuity of the development of the settlements of Kuban. The object of the study are urban and rural settlements. The subject of research is the functional and aesthetic principles of the formation of the living environment of residential areas of populated areas in the designated period. The choice of the object and subject is due to the current problematic situation for the preservation and development of the historical centers of the Kuban settlements, due to the high degree of urbanization of these centers, which sometimes leads to the absence of functional logical connectivity and accompanying environmental degradation. The main tasks are the systematization and study of historical materials on the architectural organization of settlements, namely the processes of their origin, formation and development in chronological order with reference to modern socio-economic conditions. The fundamental role is played by the study of historical and cultural values of objects of architecture and urban planning and the potential of their possible use in the formation of habitat. Especially important in this case is the definition of town-planning, architectural-planning and architectural-artistic features of the spatial organization of the living environment. This is a peculiar vector of further development and improvement of this environment, as an integral functional-aesthetic system, contributing to the improvement of living standards, as well as economic, social and environmental safety of the population. The research method includes the study of archival documents, scientific literature on the history of the Kuban, the history of architecture and urban planning; field studies and fixation of monuments of historical and cultural heritage of these settlements. The study used a comparative historical method of cognition – a scientific method that reveals, by comparing the general and the particular in the development of settlements of the Kuban in a certain time period, and formal logical research methods – methods of classification, generalization and typology, inductive and deductive research methods, making it possible to identify differences and identify identical in the history of the development of architectural and urban culture of the settlements under consideration. The study made it possible to conclude that the tradition bears, above all, the character of historical continuity – the preservation, dissemination and development of the national culture, education of respect for the architectural and town-planning heritage.

To the problem of preservation and development of the historical and architectural space of the streets of Slavyanskaya, Korolenko, Novaya in N. Novgorod

Shumilkin A.S., Gracheva E.E. pp.136-141

The article deals with the actual problem of complex preservation of historic wooden buildings in the context of changing and developing urban space. The realized experience of preservation of wooden buildings in large cities of Russia is given. The historical and cultural characteristics of the architectural space of one of the valuable fragments of the historical environment of Nizhny Novgorod – the area of Korolenko, Novaya, Slavyanskaya and Studenaya streets are given. The prospects of its development as an urban public space are analyzed. There is a change in attitude towards the preservation of the considered fragment of development and the wooden urban architecture as a whole at the professional, social and political levels in recent decades and now.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

COMFORTABLE AND SAFE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISE. SMART QUARTERS

Stages of historical and urban development of Orenburg

Ayukasova L.K., Vorontsova O.N. pp.142-148

The article aims to consider the development and preservation of the urban structure of the city as a result of historical transformations. As a result of the analysis, the authors propose, in addition to the existing system of periodization Of Russian urban planning (pre-Soviet, Soviet, post-Soviet periods), a system of division into stages associated with the peculiarities of the territorial development of the city of Orenburg against the background of the historical context. As a result of research 8 stages of historical development of Orenburg and the spatial transformations of planning structure of the city connected with them are allocated. Particular attention is paid to the description of the first stage – the laying and construction of the fortress city as a supporting Outpost of the Russian state. A brief description of the Russian urban ideology of the XVIII century as a General concept of spatial organization of cities of that time is given.

Influence of climatic factors of northern Kazakhstan on the formation of centers of social activity of the populatio

Karakova T.V., Karabaev G.A. pp.149-156

The article reveals the signifi cance of the influence climatic factors of Northern Kazakhstan on the functioning centers of social activity of the population, the importance creating a favorable and comfortable architectural environment of urban space. The analysis of the climatic factor of the northern region of Kazakhstan, analysis of the characteristics of a sharply – continental climate and its effect on the physical and psychological state of the population. On the basis of the obtained results, one of the methods forming comfortable centers of social activity of the population by creating a covered architectural environment is determined, which is integrated into the urban structure and provides a favorable internal microclimate.

Use of Energy-Efficient Technologies and Architectural Planning Methods of Dealing with Adverse Climatic Conditions on the Example of Modern Architecture

Potienko N.D., Volkova A.A. pp.157-164

The article reveals issues related to the relevance of the use of energy-effi cient technologies and architectural and planning methods of dealing with adverse climatic conditions in the modern world. The concept of extremality is revealed in architecture and a classification of extreme conditions is presented. The analysis of the state policy in the field of efficient use of energy resources was carried out and the vector of development of energy saving programs for Russia was determined. The purpose of the work was based on the analysis of modern foreign design and construction experience to identify the advantages and disadvantages of facilities using energy effi cient technologies and architectural planning methods to combat adverse climatic conditions, and determine the prospects of their use in the domestic construction practice. The study of the influence of extreme climatic conditions on the architectural and planning solutions of buildings was carried out and the peculiarities of their design, primarily related to the issues of improving energy efficiency, were revealed. It was concluded that the objects under study can be considered as one of the directions for the development of sustainable architecture.

POSTINDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES

NEW IMAGES OF THE SPATIAL ENVIRONMENT OF RUSSIAN MEGAPOLISES. CATEGORIES AND PARACATEGIES OF THE POST-INDUSTRIAL AESTHETICS

Interaction of interior space and natural landscape

Kolesnikov S.A., Nuzhdina A.V. pp.165-173

In modern design, nature dictates the forms, designs, textures, textures, colors, materials of products of modern design solutions. Realizing one of the main goals – the reconstruction of the natural environment in the spatial area of a person, the architect and designer apply the aesthetics of images suggested by nature itself. The article presents the term “natural landscape” identified by the authors from the point of view of the interior space, and highlights the factors identified by the author, through which the interaction between the interior and the natural landscape takes place. Examples of practical solutions confirming this interaction are considered.