Edition 3

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Forecasting Seismic Resistance of Real Estate Unfinished Construction

Alekseenko V.N., Zhilenko O.B. pp.4-11

The article deals with the problem of completing the construction of buildings that have been in an unfi nished state for a number of years. Such objects need a predictive assessment of their technical condition and residual seismic resistance, which reveals the real state of structures and the need to develop engineering solutions for their strengthening. The onset of corrosion of steel cannot be stopped if the corrosion products are not completely removed from the surface of the steel elements, then they are protected with anticorrosion compounds. For structures whose condition at fi rst glance should not cause concern over the years may deteriorate. The restoration of protective coatings on steel that has started to rust may slow down the corrosion process, but not stop it. The article presents the results of a survey of the unfi nished construction of a building on the Black Sea coast with a forecast estimate of residual seismic resistance. Recommendations to strengthen the supporting structures of the building, allowing to complete the construction are developed.

Experimental Test Installation of Bending Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements

Panfi lov D.A., Iliyin N.A., Mordovsky S.S., Buzovskaya Ya.A. pp.12-16

The article outlines a new technical solution related to the field of construction, in particular to the testing technique, the testing of materials and structures, and the application for conducting experimental studies of the strength and deformability parameters of reinforced concrete beam elements under static bending conditions. The experimental installation includes a pre-assembled booth, a loading mechanism, a force measuring device, a thrust element and a strap clamp. In this case, the stand contains a stop element, jacks, tensioning clamps, test specimen. The supporting element is composite and contains a base in the form of a channel and an amplifier in the form of a two-lobe. Clamping hooks are made in the form of tight fastened anchorages, equipped with roller supports. As a loading device, jacks are installed in the crevice-slot of the channel and secured by mounting screws to the base of the thrust element. The compact, simple and easy experimental installation with the increased reliability of the power device, tensioning clamps and roller bearings of the subject under bending of the concrete sample is offered.

Diagrams of Vacuum Insulating Panel Deformation During Compression

Selyaev V.P., Kiselev N.N., Liyaskin O.V. pp.17-21

The possibility of using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) with a granular filler for the manufacture of threelayer enclosing wall panels, floor slabs and coatings is considered. The results of experimental studies of vacuum insulation panels, carried out with the aim of analytically describing the deformation diagrams of VIP panels under the action of a compressive load, are presented. It has been established: deformative properties of vacuum insulation panels with granular filler do not depend on the size of the filler particles, but depend on the volume content of the filler; a deformation diagram describing the relationship between stresses and relative deformations during compression of a vacuum insulating panel with a granular filler can be approximated by the function G. B. Bülfinger. The results obtained make it possible by calculation to determine the stress state in flat plating sheets during local load transfer.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING

Selection of Liquid Fuel Type for Boiler Room

Degtyarev K.Yu., Zotov N.S., Minkina S.A., Chernobrova E.A. pp.22-32

The article presents a comparative analysis of the main types of reserve fuel for boilers, including fuel oil, diesel fuel and liquefi ed petroleum gases. The main technological aspects and features of construction of fuel farms are analyzed. The economic aspects of the use of diff erent types of reserve fuel are considered. The thermal and cost costs of fuel storage and combustion are estimated. The calculation of emissions into the atmosphere of harmful substances, including nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, benzapyrene, sulfur dioxide, soot. The masses of emitt ed substances, their concentration in fractions of MPC, distances at which the maximum concentration of emissions is observed are determined. The prospects of using liquefi ed hydrocarbon gases and «Propane-Air» technology are substantiated.

Study of Thermal Interference of Elements of the Underground Heat Exchanger in Electrolytic Bath

Osipova N.N, Bychkova I.M. pp.33-39

A study was made of the mutual thermal eff ect of the tube elements of soil heat exchangers. It was determined that the number of pipe elements of the soil heat exchanger has the greatest effect on the amount of heat influx from the soil mass. It is established that when placing the pipe elements at a distance of one diameter from each other, it causes a signifi cant decrease in the heat infl ux to the soil heat exchanger. Increasing the distance between the pipes reduces the thermal interference of the elements. The coeffi cients of thermal interference are found for various confi gurations of ground heat exchangers, which depending on the number of pipes and the distance between them vary from 0.621 to 0.99.

System Approach to the Modeling of Automated Control Systems and Thermal Energy Metering

Posashkov M.V., Nemchenko V.I. pp.40-49

An algorithm for the formation of the structure of an automated system for monitoring and accounting for thermal energy, which is a multi-level hierarchical model, is proposed. Eight three-level linear automated systems for control and accounting of thermal energy are formed in the work. To select the best structure of the automated system for monitoring and accounting for thermal energy, with a variety of measuring and computing devices on the market that diff er in measuring and transmitt ing information, the method of multi-criteria evaluation of the system effi ciency of structures is used. The obtained results allow a comparative analysis of the structures and the selection of the best one, taking into account the priorities of the decision maker.

Investigation of the Influence of the Density of Monolithic Expanded-Clay Concrete on the Energy Effi ciency of Buildings Operated under Variable Heat Mode

Saparev M.E., Vytchikov Yu.S., Prilepsky A.S., Uryadov M.I. pp.50-55

This article presents the results of a theoretical study of the impact of the density of monolithic expanded clay concrete on the specific energy consumption in the operation of the cottage building in conditions of intermittent heating. In view of the fact that the outer walls are made in the form of well masonry of various materials, in order to simplify the solution of the problem, averaging of their main thermal characteristics is made. In determining the effect of heating the outer wall and the specific energy used the author’s approximate analytical method, convenient for engineering calculations. The study showed that the use no-fine expanded-clay lightweight concrete significantly reduces the specific energy consumption compared to conventional large-porous expanded clay. The lowest energy consumption according to the calculation results refers to the minimum density of sandless no-fine expanded-clay lightweight concrete, equal to 300 kg/m3.

Use of Solar Energy Heat in Animal Breeding Buildings

Chirkova E.V. pp.56-62

The article discusses the possibility of using solar air collectors for heating livestock buildings. The disposable amount of solar energy in the Samara region is determined during the winter months when the outdoor temperature drops below the critical level, at which biological heat release from animals does not compensate for heat loss through outdoor fences, and a defi cit of heat in the premises for their maintenance begins. The calculation of the heat output of the solar heating system and the degree of substitution of the required heat load is given using the example of a cowhouse. Based on the calculations performed, the feasibility of using the heat of solar energy in livestock buildings is estimated. Recommendations are given on the place of installation of solar collectors on the cowhouse.

Study of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning System of the Shopping Mall

Yartsev D.S., Tsynaeva A.A. pp.63-73

The article reviews the literature on the optimization of microclimate systems that provide comfortable conditions in a complex public building, which is a large shopping and entertainment center. In addition, a numerical study of the functioning of microclimate support systems in a shopping and entertainment center was realized. The study was conducted using the Sim- Scale cloud service, which includes the steps of creating a grid, sett ing boundary conditions, determining simulation parameters, numerically solving and processing the results. Modeling is performed using the RANS approach. As a result of a numerical study, zones with a reduced movement of air fl ows were identifi ed, areas with excess air velocity relative to normalized values were determined, which allows to optimize the microclimate system.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

Experimental Research on the Effect of Polypacs-30 lf, Polypacs-f, Polypacs-pfs and Reagent from Slag on Properties of Oil Emulsion and Acid-Based Waste

Khalturina T.I., Orlova M.M., Churbakova O.V. pp.74-84

This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the intensifi cation of dehydration of mixed sediments of oil emulsion and acid-base wastewater. The study of determining the optimal doses of coagulants POLYPACS-30 LF, POLYPACS-F, POLYPACS-PFS was carried out. The properties of mixed sediments were found. The results are shown using X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analyzes on the D8ADVANCE devices of the fi rm Bruker (Germany) in Cu-K2-radiation and NETZSCHSTA 449 F1 by determining the composition of precipitation. The composition of the slag was determined using X-ray fl uorescence analysis – X-ray phase and X-ray X-ray spectral analyzes. The X-ray patt erns were taken on an automated X-ray diff ractometric equipment from ShimadzuXRD-7000S (CuKα radiation). XRF was carried out using an information retrieval system of X-ray phase identifi cation of materials (IPS FI), combining qualitative and semi-quantitative (by the method of “corundum numbers”) analysis. For semi-quantitative XRD, the method of fundamental parameters was used (wave X-ray fl uorescence spectrometer of the ShimadzuXRF-1800 company). Obtained data on the study of the properties and composition of mixed precipitation can be for the development of technology utilization.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Phosphate Linking of Mineral Thin-Molted Industrial Waste

Khlystov A.I., Isaev D.I. pp.85-91

The article describes various methods of synthesizing heat-resistant binders based on large-tonnage wastes of enterprises. The use of pyrite butts and expanded clay dust, respectively, from the Chapayevsky Chemical Plant and the expanded clay plant of the city of Samara in the compositions of heat-resistant concrete on phosphate binders allowed to increase their residual strength in the zone of critical temperatures (1300-1350 °С). The refractoriness of these phosphate binders turned out to be very low (≈1300 °С), which required the use of such a method of its increase as the introduction of fine high-alumina fillers with high melting points into the composition of the binder. It was revealed and justified that the use of an alumina-chromium petrochemical waste IM-2201 allowed to increase the refractoriness of the heat-resistant composition to 1600 °С. On the basis of the developed alumina-iron-phosphate, zirconyliron- phosphate and alumino-silicophosphate binders, the compositions of heavy concrete with chamotte and high-aluminous aggregates of grades 400 and 500 were selected.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

Influence of Filtration in the Body of Active Protective Structure on the Characteristics of the Circular Flow

Mikhasek A.A., Malyugin N.R. pp.92-98

The article describes the numerical model of the flow that envelops the shore protection structure in the form of a stream spur. Various from the point of view of permeability, spur body material options are considered. To model turbulent filtration as local resistance in the flow, a formula is proposed that relates the filtration coefficient to the hydraulic resistance coefficient of a permeable medium. As a result of the simulation, images were obtained in the form of a planned distribution of velocities and pressures in the vicinity of the structure. The obtained materials indicate the relative position of the transit and whirlpool zones of the flow. Conclusions are drawn about the nature of the stream flowing around the shore protection structure and the effect of filtration in the body of the structure on the characteristics of this stream.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

Kinetic Characteristics of Fracture Processes as Criteria of Concrete Durability

Davidenko A.Yu., Popov V.P., Popov D.V. pp.99-105

The results of the study of the processes of destruction of concrete by different types of external influences obtained by the Samara school of architecture and construction Academy are considered. The process of destruction of concrete with the release of the main stages formed by the volume of the released energy of cracking is analyzed. According to researches one of groups of parameters of concrete destruction – kinetic characteristics-is offered as criteria of durability of this material. The proposed group includes such indicators as the intensity of cracking and the tendency of concrete to crack. In this case, the possibility of using the proposed characteristics is justified.

Optimization of Organizational and Technological Solutions in the Design of the Construction Plan for the Construction and Reconstruction of Buildings in Cramped Conditions of the Construction Site

Zorina M.A., Ryazanova G.N., Alpatov V.Yu. pp.106-112

Features of design of construction master plans in the constrained conditions are classifi ed. Examples of definition of various technological sequence of construction of buildings are given. The possibilities of determining the dimensions of internal driveways in cramped conditions are considered. Recommendations on placement of on-site warehouses and temporary household premises are given.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Review of Modern Foreign Concepts of Environmentalization of the Living Environment

Vavilova T.Ya. pp.113-125

The problem of inconsistency of the life-forming environment and global trends forming algorithms in Russia is considered. Attention focused on taking into account the goals of a “green” economy and the tasks of improving the quality of life while regulating the parameters of urban planning and architectural decisions. The newest foreign concepts of ecologization had been study as an object of research. The subject of the research were theoretical approaches and innovative applied technologies that contribute to adapting the methods of architectural and town planning activities to changing environmental conditions. Identification of new ways to improve the consumer properties of the living environment has become the goal of the study. Materials and methods: an integrated approach, collection of information from literary and online sources, compilation and analysis of thematic materials. The basic information about theoretical developments discovered in domestic and foreign scientific journals.

Reconstruction and restoration of the cultural and historical basis of the territory with a lost city-forming function

Vologdina N.M., Tsatsyna D.E. pp.126-134

Based on the study of the area that has lost the city-forming function, the principles and models for the reconstruction of the object, which has a unique cultural and historical basis and structure built into the town-planning framework of the city, have been developed. Attention is drawn to the lack of policies and adequate renovation programs for industrial areas that are in a devastating state. The result of randomness of the development of the territory by random functions, which lasted for decades, refl ects the state of stagnation in solving global issues of urban planning and regulation. The uniqueness of the object of reconstruction as a carrier of cultural meanings and an important transport and communication hub is revealed. This provision leads the authors to conclude that it is necessary to consider actions to preserve and use sign architecture as an imperative.

Modern trends of air purification using skyscrapers

Zhdanova I.V., Kuznetsova A.A., Kalinkina N.A. pp.135-142

The article highlights the problem of air pollution in large cities. Sources of pollution and the most common pollutants have been identified. Examples of leading countries with the dirtiest air are given. The estimated indicators for the risks of disease and mortality are considered. The main factors causing air pollution have been identified. Ways to solve this problem using modern technologies are proposed. Analyzed are modern facilities in which innovative methods of combating air pollution are applied, and their implementation in real and conceptual design. The conclusion is drawn on the need for an integrated approach to this topic, uniting the efforts of all countries.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

Refunctionalisation as one of the Main Aspects of Rehabilitation of Urban Areas Disturbed by Industrial Activities

Rybakova D.S., Fedotov A.S. pp.143-150

The article is devoted to the problem of the rehabilitation of urban areas disturbed by industrial activity and the processes of their reconstruction and refunctionalization. There were analyzed objects that implemented in different countries and illustrated national and foreign experience. This analysis showed three principal directions of functional transformation of former or existing industrial enterprises: preservation of the production function, partial refunctionalization or full refunctionalization. Each of these principles has its own specific methods and techniques. The authors proposed a method for their classification, based on the developments of the researcher Stuart Brand. According to the results of the study, a classification has been compiled of methods for the refunctionalization of enterprises and former industrial areas of the city.

The experience of research urban reserves for the development of urban agriculture in modern megasities

Sembin M.S., Surankulov Sh.Zn., Akhmedova E.A. pp.151-158

The article is devoted to solving problems associated with the use of town-planning reserves in the largest cities for urban food production technologies. One of the forms of urban reserves is the use of roofing resources. In roof construction, modular, quickly erected structures can be used. Such greenhouse energy-efficient construction projects can be located on the roofs of buildings of various functional purposes – shopping centers, shops, garages and other public and communal facilities. In the structure of the largest city, such greenhouse complexes can be located both in peripheral areas and in the middle zone. In some cases, greenhouse complexes on hydroponics can be elements of more complex cluster formations such as research bio-eco-agro centers, agricultural parks, and other innovative urban complexes. Such objects function not only as agricultural production, but also as integrated scientific and experimental, educational, leisure and educational complexes.

Innovations in Transport and Ways of Solving Transport and Environmental Problems in megalopolises

Filanova T.V. pp.159-166

The article presents the results of socio-urban studies Department of the Institute SSUE «TerrNIIgrazhdanproekt » in Samara and Togliatti in 2016-17. The results of the block of studies devoted to the identification of transport problems in the cities-centers and the analysis of citizens ‘ opinion on the possible introduction of sky way string transport in Samara and Togliatt i are presented. According to a survey of Samara residents, among the problems faced by residents of the city on a daily basis, after dissatisfaction with the quality of improvement of urban areas, the most prominent are the problems of ecology and transport. The article presents the statistics of Russia’s lag in the implementation of innovative technologies in different spheres of life in comparison with foreign countries. The opinion of the residents of the cities-centers of the Samara-Togliatti agglomeration is also in favor of the development of innovative transport system – three quarters of respondents in Samara and more than 60% of respondents in Togliatti support the introduction of Sky Way string transport in their cities. The article describes the project proposals for tracing Sky Way routes in Samara and Togliatti in the first place and in the future.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, NETWORKS, AND GRIDS

Improving the Efficiency of Electrotechnical Complex of Gas Cooling on the Basis of Modernization of Management System

Danilushkin A.I., Danilushkin I.A., Danilushkin V.A. pp.167-174

An integrated approach to solving the problem of achieving the maximum efficiency of the electrical gas cooling complex at the compressor stations of the main pipeline system is considered. It is shown that the method used in practice for discrete control of the operation modes of the cooling unit by switching on or off a certain number of fans does not always provide the required temperature conditions. The use of a cascade control system will improve efficiency and significantly reduce operating costs. The problem of creating a two-level control system is solved on the basis of structural modeling of the heat exchange process as an object with distributed parameters. With the help of decomposition of the control object into “fast” and “slow” components, the structure of a two-level control system for the linearized model of the object is developed. As a result of the application of the proposed system, a minimum of electricity consumption for gas cooling, an increase in the service life of electric drive units and an increase in the accuracy of gas temperature stabilization during the processing of external disturbances are achieved.

Power Supply Efficiency Increase of the Gas-Compressor Workshop Due to Microgrid Formation on the Basis of Own Need Gas-Distributing Units Generators

Zemtsov A.I. pp.175-180

The possibility of the direct current use in the enterprise intra shop power supply systems for the electric power loss reduction purpose, the power supply reliability and the electromagnetic compatibility problem solution is considered. The structural direct current micro network scheme on the basis of own need generators, equipping gas-distributing units for gas-compressor workshop electrical generating system, is suggested. The use of these generators at changeable shaft speed is analyzed, with a possibility of regulation of gas-distributing unit capacity for the transporting gas optimization mode. The own need generators combination in the micro network for the purpose of energy surplus use for the gas air coolers power supply is essential.