Issue 1

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Calculating the strength of an excentrally compressed reinforced concrete element of rectangular section

Ilyin N.A., Mordovsky S.S., Malgina V.A., Kireeva N.A. pp.4-8

One of the main tasks in the calculation of reinforced concrete elements is the determination of strength. This problem is relevant for structures in various stress-strain states – bending, eccentrically-compressed, eccentrically-stretched, eccentrically-compressed with torsion, etc. This article discusses the solution of the strength problem in the design of an eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete element of rectangular cross section with symmetrical reinforcement. The improvement relates to taking into account the infl uence of structural parameters of the quality of reinforcement and concrete on the value of the design loads and the ultimate tensile strength of an eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete element, taking into account its deflection. By simplifying the mathematical description of the influence of structural indicators and quality parameters of reinforcement and concrete on the calculated value of the bending moment and on the strength of an eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete element, as well as simplifying the calculation of the coefficient of increase in the initial eccentricity of the longitudinal force taking into account the deflection of the compressed reinforced concrete element, this improvement is obtained. Using the proposed formulas in calculating the strength of an eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete element of rectangular cross section allows us to ensure the convergence of the result with the classical version of the calculation with a reduction in labor costs due to the simplicity of the formulas.

Research of the “floating” base method for sedimentation on the model of the foundation plate

Isaev V.I., Maltsev A.V., Karpov A.A. pp.9-15

In the article, the authors propose the application of a one-dimensional problem of the theory of compression compaction of soils for the calculation of sediments of Foundation slabs of large area. The authors analyzed the existing methods for determining the depth of the compressible thickness. The author suggests an original technique to determine the depth of compressible strata and settling of the Foundation. A test bench (tray) was developed and a laboratory test was performed. The results of an experimental study of the depth of compressible thickness under slab foundations are presented. The analysis of experimental data is made. The method of calculation of compressible thickness depth, previously proposed by the authors, is confirmed.

Research of ways to increase corrosion resistance in reinforced concrete constructions

Kondratyeva N.V., Alfimenkova A.Yu. pp.16-23

The results of the first two series of studies of ways to increase the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with primary protection in the form of an additive of acetone-formaldehyde resin ACF-75 and with secondary protection with a two-component resin Binder EP 11 Tikso are presented. Studies have shown that the addition of ACF-75 leads to a significant increase in the strength of concrete. The results of laboratory tests have shown that the use of concrete with the addition of ACF-75 is unacceptable in reinforced concrete structures operating in environments containing sulfuric and nitric acids, without additional corrosion protection of the surface. In the course of the study, it was proved that the samples coated in three layers with Binder EP11 Thixo resin were resistant to a 5% solution of nitric acid.

Research of the work of reinforced concrete bended elements with the use of post-tensioned ropes

Pishchulev A.A., Panfilov D.A., Zhiltsov Yu.V., Buzovskaya Ya.A. pp.24-29

The study of full-scale samples of bent reinforced concrete beams using tensioned ropes in a synthetic shell filled with grease is considered in the article. The purpose of the research is to test reinforced concrete beams using post-tensioned ropes to assess the load-bearing capacity and stiffness. Experimental results of studies on bent samples with rope tension and without ropes are presented. The study on full-scale samples revealed a number of features of the work of bent beams with post-tensioned ropes. The use of a post-tensioned rope without coupling with concrete allows for a more evenly distributed development of normal cracks and reduces the width of the crack opening. Pre-tension cable reinforcement increases the load carrying capacity of the area of the transverse bend.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING

Investigation the effect of outdoor air infiltration on the heat-shielding characteristics the outer walls of high-rise buildings

Vytchikov Yu.S., Saparev M.Ye., Kostuganov A.B. pp.30-35

The influence of infiltrating outdoor air on the thermal protection characteristics of the exterior walls of modern residential and public buildings is considered. The review of sources devoted to this problem confirmed its relevance at the present time, especially for high-rise buildings. The authors of the article analyzed the influence of longitudinal and transverse air infiltration on the thermal protection characteristics of the outer wall of a 25-storey building built in Samara. The results of the calculation showed a significant decrease in the reduced resistance to heat transfer of the outer wall when air infiltrates through it. To confirm the calculated data, the results of a full-scale study of external walls are presented. Based on the results of the study, general recommendations are given for the interior decoration of the exterior walls of high-rise buildings.

Research of heat disposal efficiency in recuperative heat exchangers of autonomous ventilation units

Kostuganov A.B. pp.36-46

Full-scale tests of recuperative heat exchangers of autonomous ventilation units of a new design were carried out in order to determine the efficiency of heat recovery in them. As a result of the tests, it was found that the efficiency of heat recovery in such recuperative heat exchangers varies from 40 to 70 %, depending on the initial parameters of the supply and exhaust air. It was also found that in order to achieve the same heat recovery effect, it is advisable to use the construction of heat exchangers with corrugated mesh than the construction with corrugated plates because the first construction with a comparable heat recovery effect provides up to one and a half times lower aerodynamic drag. During the tests was also made an approbation of a new protection scheme for recuperative heat exchangers against freezing.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

Influence of probiotic products on the quality of waste water treatment in dairy industries

Vialkova E.I., Sidorenko O.V., Glushchenko E.S. pp.47-55

Nowadays there is the problem of the effective treatment of dairy industry plants’ wastewaters. Industrial wastewaters of these plants have high concentrations of organic matters and differ significantly from domestic wastewaters. The method of intensification of dairy wastewaters treatment in Tyumen region, using probiotic «PIP Plus WATER» (Belgium) is considered in this article. The article presents the results of conducted research on the impact of the probiotic on such wastewaters indices as pH, chemical oxygen demand, anionic surfactants, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates and phosphates concentrations. The comparison among different ways of wastewater treatment with probiotics has been made. Based on obtained results technological scheme of local treatment plant of dairy industry plant has been suggested.

On amendments to the regulations 30.13330.2016, «Internal water pipeline and sewerage of buildings. Actualized edition of construction standards and regulations 2.04.01-85»

Strelkov A.K., Zotov Yu.N., Mikhailova I.Yu. pp.56-62

The article is devoted to the practical implementation of the results of the analysis of the relationship between the system of technical regulation in construction and the regulatory regulation of relations for the provision of public services. Changes in the current normative documentation in the sphere of water supply of apartment buildings are considered. It is shown that it is necessary to improve the methodological basis for designing inhouse systems of cold and hot water supply in an apartment building and to create a legitimate methodological tool. Recommendations for improving the regulations 30.13330.2016, «internal water pipeline and sewerage of buildings. Actualized edition of construction standards and regulations 2.04.01-85» are proposed. Changes in the Construction Regulations 30.13330.2016 and the results of their expertise are given.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Comparative analysis of methods for determining the effective CO2 diffusion coefficient in fine-grained concrete of different densities

Fedorov P.A. pp.63-70

Direct and indirect methods for determining the effective diffusion coefficient of CO2 in concrete are considered. The features of the diffusion process in a capillary-porous body are described. Based on the test results of samples of fine-grained concrete with different densities, a comparative analysis of the coefficients obtained by the main methods was carried out. The criteria for comparison were the dependence of the water-cement ratio on diffusion, as well as the rate of carbonization on time. The presence of significant deviations in the low permeability concretes of the coefficients obtained by the membrane methods of 72 % and the electrical conductivity of concrete saturated with electrolyte 85 % in the low permeability concrete from the values obtained by the carbonization method was established.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

Results of Multi-Factor Analysis of the Condition of Hydrotechnical Constructions

Evdokimov S.V., Seliverstov V.A., Orlova A.A. pp.71-76

Control over the state of the main hydraulic structures of Zhiguli hydroelectric power station is carried out according to observations of the control and measuring equipment installed in the facilities and in their base, as well as the results of systematic inspections and surveys conducted by both the power plant personnel and invited experts. A computer information and diagnostic system for monitoring the condition of facilities is being introduced at the hydroelectric power station. The introduction of this system made it necessary to pay attention to the reliability of the results obtained with the help of instrumentation. The aim of the research is to conduct a multivariate analysis of the state of hydraulic structures Zhigulevskaya HPP on the results of field observations of all devices. It is established that the antifiltration elements of the underground circuit of the HPP building were not effective enough for the specific geological conditions of the base in terms of damping the filtration head. The main pressure drop in the base occurs on the upper tooth of the HPP building, where the maximum filtration gradient is observed, which is very dangerous. In the course of research it was found that several piezometers in the base do not work or their indications cause great doubts, their repair and replacement are required. According to the results of the work, it is concluded that it is necessary to equip the main piezometers of the HPP building with remote water level meters and create an automated system of survey and monitoring of the base state on their basis.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

Search for solutions for a work project and their implementation at the development of the fencing of the Iversky female monastery

Doladov Yu.I., Zakharov M.Ye., Kozinets S.Yu., Khmyleva O.Yu. pp.77-82

The project for implementation of construction operations was made for the Iversky Female Monastery. The fence is a stepped brick wall which situated on the reinforced foundation framework. The project presents engineering solutions for the construction of bored piles, pouring concrete of the foundation framework and brickwork. The project considers the incommodious conditions on the building site.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Main factors influencing the vector of development of the implemented urban utopia

Artemeva T.G., Adonina A.V. pp.83-91

The article discusses the role of the social context in the evolution of implemented urban development utopia. The ontological and morphostructural problems of one of the implemented urban development utopias on the example of the city of Togliatti are revealed. It was established that the general plan of the Avtozavodsky district of Tolyatti, which fully met the ideals of the Athenian Charter, came into conflict with the idea of the city as a concentrated environment. It is noted that modern Togliatti is in search of a solution to the problem of the integrity of the urban structure. The conclusion is drawn: overcoming the crisis state of Togliatti lies in the field of generating, including new utopias; integration of existing morphostructures; reinforcing redundant conceptuality of form with contextual content. A new morphological unit is proposed – this is macro frame, which is based on multilevel integration of traffic and pedestrian flows.

Functional aspects of sectoral zoning intracity municipality (on the example of Minsk)

Denisov D.V., Zhuravlev M.Yu., Medvedeva N.Yu., Malkov I.I. pp.92-100

The authors study the spatial orientation factor in the development trajectory of administrative regions in the context of sectoral administrative division (for example, Minsk, Republic of Belarus). Due to the lack of a methodology in the Western architectural tradition for studying the factor of cardinal points in the formation of unique characteristics of administrative regions, the authors turn to ancient and modern scientific sources containing such information, including the functional topological model. The analysis showed that in the case of Minsk, urban functions show signs of sectoral differentiation depending on the factor of cardinal points at the level of district names, with the placement of industries, sleeping areas, higher education institutions, research institutes.

Fork. Urban planning and human

Kolevatykh D.A. pp.101-110

The relationship of the phenomena occurring on our planet is considered. The author suggests looking at the process of city formation as one of them, putt ing it on a par with phenomena of both a biological and physical nature. The article provides a classification of some phenomena occurring in observable reality. A hypothesis is put forward, which is accompanied by a questionnaire study. This hypothesis partially relates to the question of the correctness of the architect’s work regarding the preservation of historical and architectural heritage within urban space. In parallel, it is proposed to rethink the concept of “historical and architectural monument” in the context of the city with respect to its inhabitants. The article is accompanied by illustrative material by the author.

Living environment in the context of historical development of Kuban settlements

Subbotin O.S. pp.111-120

The main aspects of the historical development of the settlements of the studied region are considered. Attention is focused on the work of scientists devoted to the study of issues related to the peculiarities of architectural and urban development in the territory of historical centers of settlements of the Southern and Volga Federal Districts. The issues of primary importance arising from the reconstruction of these centers are identified. The object of the study is the traditional living environment of the settlements of the Kuban. The subject of the study is the specifics of the transformation of this environment in historical settlements. The purpose of the study is to identify the basic principles of the formation of the historical environment of settlements. The peculiarity of resettlement in the Kuban in accordance with the natural potential and climatic conditions of the region is noted. The leading role in the article is assigned to the preservation of the architectural heritage of the settlements. The practical significance of the study lies in the fact that its results can be used in developing projects for the reconstruction of historical settlements.

Memorable spaces: views of time

Khomyakov A.I. pp.121-127

Memorial space is a memorial and museum complex (a symbiosis of monuments, museum and artistically decorated open spaces), which is the type of public building, the development of which took place sequentially and progressively in time. The stages of its formation are directly related to the social formation and aesthetic development of society, due to political and economic processes, which are the main driving forces of world history in general and art history in particular. In this article, the question of how this formation took place and whether its phases can be determined, and most importantly, what it will be embodied in the new century, is examined from the angle of the temporal and thematic characteristics of this phenomenon.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Structure of temple complexes under conditions of complex relief and design principles

Vologdina N.N., Alexandrova O.Yu. pp.128-139

The main direction of the research includes the analysis of the structure of temple complexes in difficult terrain. The influence of landscape morphology on the specifics of the structure and architecture of religious buildings is considered. One of the important components is the historical outline of the construction of temple complexes as unique events, as well as time as one of the main “building materials”. Based on the analysis, the design principles were developed: uniqueness, regional affiliation, continuity, contextuality, spatial narrative, structurality, geomorphological certainty, genios loci (Greek. genius of place), integrity, sacredness, nested structures, koinos bios (Greek. common life).

Identity problems of regional food markets

Georgievskaya A.O. pp.140-147

The aim of the work is to identify problems of identity of regional food markets. As the process of globalization intensifies, the search for regional identity in urban space becomes more and more relevant. As such, the urban market is seen as a place where local characteristics, culture, history, and patt erns are manifested in the context of the urban environment. Why the market is a space of local identity manifestation, what is the local context for the urban market, what are the features and problems of the identity of urban markets on the example of Samara, what are the possible ways to solve these problems-these and other questions are considered by the author in the article.

Stages of formation of atrium spaces in the aspect of sustainable development of the city environment

Medvedeva N.Yu., Parshin A.N. pp.148-156

The formation of atrium spaces, the change in their functional and compositional features in the process of development and transformation of space-planning qualities of architecture are investigated. The accumulated experience in designing atrium buildings with the aim of creating a sustainable architectural and urban planning environment is systematized. For the first time, prototypes of atrium spaces of the Middle Ages of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are analyzed. Studied domestic and foreign experience in the formation of atrium buildings. The features of the shaping of modern atrium spaces that perform the function of a courtyard for one or a group of buildings are revealed.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

Problems of growth and development of world and Russian agglomeration

Astafeva N.S., Laguta I.V., Kukarina E.E., Moleva N.Yu. pp.157-163

The concept of agglomeration, historical and other prerequisites for its formation, the structure and dynamics of the development of a modern city are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of people living in urban structures are revealed. A comparison is made of the largest world agglomerations (Moscow, Paris, London, New York and Tokyo) in order to identify common features. The main features of Russian agglomerations are highlighted, their differences from world ones are shown, factors that contributed to the formation of domestic urbanized cities are indicated. The problems of the modern metropolis, their consequences and impact on the lifestyle of the population are considered.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

INDUSTRIAL THERMAL POWER

Analysis of the influence of air temperature on changes in Gibbs energy in the formation of nitrogen oxides in smoke gases of boiler plants

Balandina O.A., Puring S.M., Pashchenko D.I. pp.164-171

The article discusses the mechanisms of the occurrence of nitrogen oxides in the gas emissions of boiler plants. Using thermodynamic calculations, the probability and direction of the process of the formation of nitrogen oxides in the temperature range from 25 to 2000° C were determined. The geometric thermodynamics methods show changes in the Gibbs energy of reactions of the formation of nitrogen oxides from temperature, and determine the conditions for achieving their chemical equilibrium. An analysis of the results showed that the standard changes in the free energies (Gibbs energies) of the reactions of the formation of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of gas fuels are mostly negative.

Influence of gap seals obliteration of plunger couples on the work of electricity system drives

Krestin E.A., Serebryakov G.V. pp.172-178

The influence of obliteration of slott ed gaps of plunger couples at the stage of design and calculation of drive systems for aggregates of electric power systems is considered. Obliteration is considered as a harmful phenomenon, on the basis of this, it is necessary to search for methods and means that contribute to the stabilization of flow. Such a problem arises whenever it is necessary to obtain small and stable over time fluid flow rates. Since obliteration is always accompanied by an increase in the forces required to move the mating parts relative to each other, for example, a plunger in a sleeve, ignoring this phenomenon can lead to underestimated costs of leakage of the working fluid. These efforts are all the more, the more active is the obliteration process. The analysis of experimental studies for various types of liquids with different gaps and pulsations of the pressure drop at the ends of the gap. The obliteration process, caused by the adsorption of liquid molecules, was approximated by an exponential function that allows you to determine the maximum possible thickness of the boundary layer of liquid formed on the channel wall.