Issue 2

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Results of Research of Compressed Deformed Composite Rods of T-section Reinforced with Welding

Rodionov I.K., Rodionov I.I. pp.4-9

The article presents experimentally obtained information about the features of the work of compressed deformed rods, reinforced in two ways by increasing the cross section using welding. In the test, a P-200 press was used, on the plates of which centered ball bearings were att ached. Nine rods of T-section 100 cm long from paired corners L40x4 were tested. Three rods were straight: tested without amplifi cation. Six rods had a common curvature in the plane of the gaskets and were reinforced: three rods with pair of short corners L40x4 (length 60 cm); three rods – paired long corners L40x4 (length 100 cm). Loading was carried out in steps of 200 kg until the loss of non-existent ability. As a result, information was obtained on the signifi cant eff ectiveness of the amplifi cation method with long gain angles.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, GAS SUPPLY AND LIGHTING

Application of the Method of Dimensional Characteristics to the Calculation of the Humidity Mode of Multi-layered Enclosing Building Structures

Vytchikov Yu.S., Saparev M.Ye. pp.10-15

The implementation of the energy saving program in construction, adopted in the Russian Federation, has led to a signifi cant change in the design decisions of building envelopes. To achieve the normative values of heat transfer resistance, various facade systems are currently widely used for insulation of external walls using polymeric materials as heaters, which have low values of the coeffi cient of thermal conductivity with a relatively high value of the coefficient of vapor permeability. Therefore, when choosing a textured layer of facade systems, it is necessary to take into account the value of its resistance to diff usion of water vapor in order to avoid the accumulation of moisture in the outer walls. The problem associated with the possible accumulation of moisture is especially relevant when designing both three-layer exterior walls and walls with internal insulation. To eliminate the formation of molds on the inner surfaces of the enclosing structures, leading to dangerous diseases of skin and respiratory tract organs, as well as the destruction of building structures, it is necessary to accurately calculate the humidity mode of the enclosing structures in order to protect them from overmoistening. The article presents a methodology for determining the position of the plane of possible condensation in multilayer enclosing structures, based on the use of the dimensionless characteristics method.

Modernization of Devices for Purification of Air from Solid High-Dispersed Aerosols

Puring S.M., Vatuzov D.N. pp.16-21

A device for cleaning solid particles with a dispersion of 0.1 μm is proposed. The principle of the apparatus is based on coagulation of particles on slots perforated in the form of slots, using irrigation of contaminated air with water through nozzles with a dispersed composition from 2.0 microns to 10 microns. When a threephase fl ow passes through the slots of the fi rst separator plate, turbulent coagulation occurs due to turbulence of the fl ow in streams with a small turbulence scale, which leads to particle coarsening. When the jet runs onto the second plate, a boundary layer is formed that has an increased viscosity to the components of the jet. Viscosity is formed due to the sedimentation and mixing of water particles and dust (including coarsened) on the surface of the second plate, where particles are mainly deposited. The dependences of the apparatus effi ciency on the width of the slots and their mutual arrangement on the fi rst and second plates, the combination of which provides a mode of increased coagulation and high effi – ciency of particle capture by the apparatus, are revealed.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

Ttreatment of Urban Waste Water from Ions of Heavy Metals by Using New Sorption Material

Panfilova O.N. pp.22-28

The article presents the results of experiments on the removal of heavy metal ions from urban wastewater with a new sorbent -based on clay. The work was carried out in an experimental reactor (SBR) in three modes: bio-sorption treatment; sorption purifi cation; and evaluating the eff ect of the coagulant on the eff ectiveness of sorption purifi cation. The dose of sorbent used in the aeration tank to achieve standards for heavy metal ions was 10 g / l. When using the proposed sorbent in sorption purifi cation the dose of the sorbent was decreased to 1 g / l. The introduction of a coagulant with a dose of 6-8 mg / l for iron (III) had a positive eff ect on the concentration of zinc, copper, lead, aluminum and phosphates, but increased the concentration of iron in purifi ed water. The new sorbent is recommended for deep treatment of industrial wastewater with higher initial concentrations.

About Features of Water Consumption Calculation When Designing Water Supply Systems of High-Rise Buildings

Sayriddinov S.Sh. pp.29-35

This article discusses the hydraulic and technological features of calculating water consumption when designing water supply systems for high-rise buildings in order to increase the effi ciency of water supply and distribution in a given projected object. The basic criteria for the operation of water supply systems for high-rise buildings in accordance with modern requirements of regulatory documents are given. The technological need is justified and completed operational, technological and feasibility analysis of the applicability of methods determination of water consumption to improve the effi ciency of water supply systems of high-rise buildings. Advantages and disadvantages of methods for determining the cost of internal water supply performed by various research and design institutes are indicated.

Mathematical modeling of water supply and water disposal systems

Teplykh S.Yu., Bochkov D.S., Veselova M.V. pp.36-42

The paper is devoted to the study of the features of mathematical modeling of water supply and sanitation systems. These systems are complex systems consisting of branched pipeline networks, structures, installations and equipment. In this case, the work of all elements must be linked to each other. This task is very diffi cult due to the presence of a large number of parameters and technological processes occurring in water supply and sanitation systems. Therefore, in practice, diff erent types of modeling, including mathematical, are used to solve these problems.

System Analysis of Normative Requirements Evolution in Terms of Composition and Characteristics of Sewage Discharged into Surface Water Bodies

Shuvalov M.V. pp.43-56

Information on the main normative documents on wastewater discharge into surface water bodies adopted in Russia, Europe and the USA is given. The information on normalization of composition and properties of waste water discharged into surface water bodies is summarized. The system of sewage discharge rationing, operating in Russia from 1947 to 2019, formed the establishment of maximum permissible concentrations for the majority of pollutants at the level of technically unatt ainable concentrations. Implementation of normative documents of ITG (information technology guide) 10- 2019 and «Rules for att ributing water bodies to categories of water bodies to establish technological indicators of BAT (Best Available Technology)…». (2019) is the next stage of practical actions to radically change the normalization of wastewater discharge into water bodies in Russia.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Application of Light-Concrete Enclosing Structures to Increase Residential Comfort

Zhigulina A.Yu., Chiknovoryan A.G., Mizuriaev S.A. pp.57-61

The article is devoted to the justification of the use of light concrete for the production of enclosing structures that create a comfortable microclimate in the premises. Ways to expand the scope of light concrete application by introducing a material of a fused structure without a fi ne aggregate are proposed. The article substantiates the scientifi c hypothesis that the use of various types of air-entrapping surfactants will create a promising material, the numerous advantages of which allow us to consider it a worthy alternative to multilayer structures.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION AND URBAN ECONOMY

Influence of the Effect of the Urban Heat Island on the Cities Sustainable Development

Shukurov I.S., Le M.T., Shukurova L.I., Dmitrieva A.D. pp.62-70

The result of the action of the urban heat island on the layout of the city of Hanoi is considered. It is stated that the formation and development of sustainable urban development creates optimal conditions for the life and work of citizens, is a guarantee of safety and comfortable living, and guards the natural environment. In a scientifi c study, such a remote sensing method was used as a means of analyzing the surface temperature in a city with environmental problems due to the eff ect of the “urban heat island” (UHI. The analysis was performed using satellite images Landsat-5, Landsat-7, Landsat-8. This study confi rmed the existence of the urban heat island eff ect in the center of Hanoi and examined the role of city confi guration on a macro scale. The effi ciency of using green spaces on the roofs of megacities is estimated. It is emphasized that thanks to the transpiration process, green spaces contribute to reducing the negative effects of UHI and gas contamination. It is established that the use in the city’s architecture of light surfaces of buildings and planes (roads, sidewalks, platforms) favorably aff ects the mesoclimate, performing the cooling function. At the macro level, the orderly introduction of green spaces in large cities helps to resolve serious environmental problems such as global warming and the greenhouse effect.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Architectural and Design Features of Residential Buildings in Saint-Petersburg in the Second Half of the XVIII Century

Golovina S.G. pp.71-77

The paper presents a review of architectural and design techniques which were characteristic for residential development in the second half of the XVIII century in St. Petersburg. During that period, there was formed the urban planning, volumetric spatial and constructional structure of residential buildings, which later, in the XIX – early XX century, became a typical solution for residential development in St. Petersburg. The fi rewalled residential house was usually built along the perimeter of the possessory plot of land with an inner courtyard formed inside. The residential house consisted of a two-span front building and one-span side buildings located along the perimeter of the site. The constructional system of a residential building in the second half of the XVIII century was a vaulted-beam scheme along the longitudinal walls. The main construction structures are described, such as brick walls with subsequent fi nishing, strip stone footings based on wooden joists, roofs built on wooden batter rafters in a cold attic with no heating.

Architecture of the Perm Factory-Kitchen of the Industrial Township “Sotsgorodok” in Motovilikha in the Aspect of Evolution of Utopic Ideology

Isakov A.S. pp.78-86

The article considers the architectural features of the fi rst factory-kitchens in the USSR, and other factories- kitchens Ivanovo region, built in the 1920-30-ies. Explores the history of their creation, planning and functional features of the original and the existing condition of the facades.

Arborarchitecture: Modern Trends

Smolina O.O. pp.87-92

Arborarchitecture is a promising direction in architecture and construction, the technology of which is to form a three-dimensional composition of buildings and structures from growing trees. The results of this study are the proposed classifi cation of arborarchitecture by design features of their formation. We found that the cultivation of artistic and architectural forms of buildings and structures, it is possible to use a frame, which will later be removed, or to use the principle layout of the building structural framing in conjunction with bionic; or to use the most time-consuming way to generate data object types – growing «wood» frame of the building.

Principles of Formation of Public Spaces for the Historical Part of Cities

Sysoeva E.A., Dakhnyuk K.N. pp.93-99

The article is devoted to identifying the principles of the formation of a socially-comfortable urban environment in the historical part of cities. It covers various aspects that infl uence the modeling of the public environment, from urban to social. The collected material, using the studied cities with public spaces in historical buildings as an example, will reveal the factors infl uencing the transformation of spaces; develop a methodological base for design in the structure of historical buildings, determine the place of function in such design. This methodological material will become the basis for the design of public spaces in the historical part of the city of Samara.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. CREATIVE CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVITY

Formation of Stylobat Typology of High-Rise Buildings in Accordance with Principles of Transit-Oriented Design

Generalova E.M., Generalov V.P. pp.100-108

The study reveals the following aspects that determine the typological diversity of stylobates in high-rise buildings: functional structure; connection to pedestrian and traffic flows; landscaping; variation of scenarios of social interaction; adaptability; the degree of accessibility of various public services; security; the impact of climatic conditions on the planning structure; innovative architectural, constructive and technological solutions. A scientifically based typology of stylobates of highrise buildings is proposed. The basic principles of transit-oriented development of the urban environment are considered. The article focuses on the transit-oriented development of the stylobate part of high-rise buildings and complexes. The main space-planning elements necessary for organizing pedestrian traffic are identified.

Formation Features of Atrium Spaces in the Aspect of Visual-Spatial Relations with the Environment

Medvedeva N.Yu. pp.109-115

Changes in the atrium buildings in the functional and compositional aspects in diff erent historical periods influenced the typology and features of the use of atrium spaces in modern architecture. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of the development of atrium buildings and a synthesis of the obtained qualitative characteristics of atrium spaces with trends in the formation of functional-composite components in modern architecture. The purpose of the article is to identify typological features of atrium spaces that form the visual integration of internal and external spaces. Artistic expressiveness and variability of the use of atrium in modern architecture are prerequisites for the systematization and identifi cation of the features of the formation of atrium spaces. The author considers the formation of atrium spaces as an aspect of visual-spatial connections with the environment.

ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

URBAN PLANNING, PLANNING OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

Development of Resource Potential of Urban Planning Reserves in Megapolises

Gud’ I.D. pp.116-123

The article shows the results of theoretical research in the fi eld of spatial development of the territory and the sett lement. Infrastructure provision of the forming Greater Samara megapolis is considered in the dialectical confrontation of internal and external infl uence factors in relation to the global transport map. The practical proposals for the territorial sett lement formation system of Samara province based on the development of towns interaction in the structure of the marginal zone of Samara agglomeration with peripheral local systems of rural settlement are made. The author makes models of multi-modal transport and logistics hubs (Multihubs) in promising “growth poles”, which are going to be at the points of contact of the peripheral marginal zone of the Samara agglomeration with local rural settlement systems.

Tourist Infrastructure Development Strategy of One of the Major Tourist Centers of North Caucasus TRC “Arkhyz”

Malysheva S.G., Grechushnikova Iu.S. pp.124-130

The article analyzes the current state of the tourist infrastructure of one of the main tourist centers of the North Caucasus, the all-season tourist and recreational complex “ARKHYZ”. The main factors contributing to the increase in tourist flow are formulated. From the point of view of the functional development of the territory of the complex, design solutions are proposed for the additional inclusion of new tourist infrastructure facilities. Examples of unique architectural and planning solutions for tourist sites based on modern international design experience are given. This study was among the winners of the first wave of the project “Professional training 2.0”.

Assessment of the Problems of the Development of the Housing Renovation Process in Large Cities of Russia

Ryazanova G.N., Lukyanova A.O. pp.131-138

The article discusses the main problems and prospects of organizing housing renovation, which could become a program for large cities of Russia on the example of Moscow. In the cities of Russia, a huge number of obsolete buildings that exceed their service life or on the verge of achieving it. The advantages and disadvantages of the housing renovation program in Moscow are considered. An algorithm for a housing renovation program for large cities of Russia is proposed. The problems of organizing the disposal of construction waste and the possibilities of their processing are considered. An assessment is given of the condition of buildings in certain districts of Samara, which could be included in the housing renovation program.

On the Spatial Development Strategy of the City of Penza

Sokolova N.V., Litvinova Ya.V. pp.139-146

The article is devoted to the choice of the strategy of spatial development of the city of Penza. Domestic experience of spatial development strategy application for the largest cities is considered, territorial and recreational resources, transport infrastructure of the city are analyzed. The strategy of spatial development of the city of Penza, based on the principles of compactness and polycentricity in respect of territorial development, multimodality in the field of transport infrastructure and the principle of continuity in the development of natural and recreational framework.

Origin of zeilenbau

Filippov V.D. pp.147-159

The history of the origin of one of the types of urban planning, line (zeilenbau) building, which was widespread in the settlements of the Weimar Republic in the second half of the 1920s is consistently described. The prerequisites and conditions of occurrence, principles and boundaries of applicability in urban planning are discussed.

ENERGY ENGINEERING

ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, NETWORKS, AND GRIDS

Electrotechnical Modular Complex for Heating Viscous Liquids in Pipeline Transport Facilities

Danilushkin A.I., Danilushkin V.A., Krivosheev V.E., Maksimova M.A. pp.160-167

The article discusses the problem of increasing the efficiency of installations for heating viscous liquids during their transportation through pipeline systems. The posed problem is solved by intensifying the heat transfer process between heat sources and a heated liquid. Intensify the heat transfer process in heating systems by using a modular heating system. Each module consists of an induction heating section and an induction mixer. The mixer is installed at the outlet of the heating section. The process of mixing the liquid is carried out by an induction mixer of a special design. A method for calculating the temperature of the oil flow in the pipeline behind the induction heater and after the mixer is proposed. The methodology was developed on the basis of a balance of heat flows. The temperature distribution for a multi-section heater consisting of several induction modules is calculated. It is shown that the use of a modular system can significantly reduce the overall dimensions of the induction heater and reduce energy costs for transporting liquid.